Yazılı Çeviri Edinci (YAZÇE) Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi ve Katılımcıların Yazılı Çeviri Edincine İlişkin Görüşleri

Çeviri çalışmaları alanında çeviri edinci üzerine yapılan çalışmalar incelendiğinde, literatürde çeviri edincinin tanımı, kavramın nelerden oluştuğu ve edinim sürecinin değerlendirilmesi konusunda çok sayıda çalışma olmasına rağmen, bugüne kadar yapılan araştırmaların çoğunun betimleyici nitelikte olduğu görülmektedir. Çeviri edinci ölçeği oluşturmak için farklı çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Literatürde ele alınan önde gelen çeviri edinci modelleri;) gözlem ve deneyime dayalı bireysel edinç modelleri, b) araştırma projeleri ve uzun dönemli ampirik araştırmalarla elde edilen verilere dayalı çeviri edinci modelleri, c) sektöre dayalı çeviri edinç modelleri olarak sınıflandırılabilir. Bu çalışmamızda ise daha önceden oluşturulan çeviri edinci modellerinden yola çıkılarak ölçek maddeleri ve boyutları oluşturulmuş ve böylelikle de yeni bir çeviri edinci ölçeğinin geliştirilmesinin önü açılmış oldu. Bu yeni geliştirilen çeviri edinci ölçeği ile farklı üniversitelerde öğrenim gören aday çevirmenlerin çeviri edinçleri ile Türkiye'de çeviri piyasasında çalışan profesyonel çevirmenlerin çeviri edinçleri değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmanın amacı; yazılı çeviri edincini ortaya koyabilecek bir ölçek geliştirmek ve katılımcıların yazılı çeviri edincine yönelik görüşlerini incelemektir. Tarama modelinde yürütülen araştırma; Yazılı Çeviri Edinci (YAZÇE) Ölçeği’nin doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonuçlarından elde edilen verilerle uyum indeksleri karşılaştırmasında modelin anlamlı, iyi ve kabul edilebilir değerlere sahip olduğu görülmekte (χ2 = 461,554; sd = 186; p = ,000; χ2/sd = 2,481; SRMR = ,0488; RMSEA = 0,061; CFI = ,918; TLI = ,908; GFI = ,904; AGFI = ,880) olup geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek (üç alt boyutlu ve 21 maddeli) olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bunun yanında; yazılı çeviri edincinde anlamlı farkın erkek katılımcıların lehine ve etkinin olumlu yönde-orta düzeyde olduğu, katılımcılardan 46 yaş ve üzeri olanların 25 yaş ve altında olanlara göre yazılı çeviri edinci puan ortalamalarının yüksek olduğu, bildiği bir yabancı dilin konuşulduğu ülkede üç aydan fazla bulunanların lehine anlamlı fark olduğu ve etkinin olumlu yönde-orta düzeyde olduğu, korelasyon değerleri doğrultusunda katılımcıların yazılı çeviri edinci durumlarının cinsiyet ve yaş ile düşük düzeyde ve pozitif yönde; bir ülkede bulunma ile düşük düzeyde ve negatif yönde anlamlı ilişkisi olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu sonuçlar dikkate alınarak şu önerilerde bulunulmuştur; çeviri edincinin kazanılmasında tecrübe faktörü önemli bir yere sahiptir. Yaşla birlikte dünya bilgisi, konu bilgisi, uzmanlık alanı bilgisi, çeviri yapılan çalışma dillerine maruz kalınma düzeyi arttıkça çeviri edinci de paralel olarak gelişmektedir. Dolasıyla gerek çevirmen adayları gerekse profesyonel çevirmenlerin çeviri tecrübelerini arttırmaya yönelik faaliyetlerde bulunması gerekir.

Developing a Translation Competence Scale (TCS) and Evaluating the Opinions of Prospective Translators and Professional Translators in Turkey regarding Translation Competence

Upon examining studies on translation competence in the field of translation studies, it is observed that although there are numerous studies in the literature as to the definition of translation competence, what the concept consists of, and evaluation of its acquisition process, much of the research up to now has been descriptive. Previous studies were not carried out to create a translation competence scale. The leading translation competence models addressed in the literature can be classified as individual competence models based on observation and experience, translation competence models based on data obtained through research projects and longitudinal empirical research, and translation competence models based on the industry. However, in our study, we created scale items and components based on the translation competence models mentioned earlier, paving the way to develop a translation competence scale. Through this new translation competence scale, we also evaluated prospective translators and professional translators in Turkey. The main aim of this study is to develop a translation competence scale and examine the opinions of prospective translators and professional translators on translation competence. The research was carried out via a survey model and it was found that the model has significant, good and acceptable values when comparing the fit indices with the data obtained from the results of the confirmatory factor analysis of the translation competence scale (TCS) (χ2 =461,554; sd=186; p=,000; χ2/sd = 2,481; SRMR = ,0488; RMSEA = ,061; CFI = ,918; TLI = ,908; GFI =,904; AGFI = ,880). It was also concluded that the scale is valid and reliable (with three-dimensional and 21-items). There is also a significant difference regarding the translation competence in favor of the male participants, and the effect is medium and positive. The mean scores of the participants regarding translation competence who are 46 years old and above are higher than those who are 25 years old and below. There is a significant difference for those who have lived in a country where a foreign language is spoken for more than three months, and the effect is -medium and positive, in line with the correlation values. There is a low and negative significant relationship with living in a country, while the translation competence of the participants is low and positive with sex and age. Considering these results, the following recommendations have been made: The experience factor plays a vital role in acquiring translation competence. As the level of world knowledge, subject knowledge, field of expert knowledge and exposure to working languages in translation increase with age, the acquisition of translation competence also develops in parallel. Accordingly, prospective and professional translators should be engaged in activities to increase their translation experience.

___

Alawi, S., & Ghaemi. H (2013). Reliability assessment and construct validation of translation competence questionnaire (TCQ) in Iran. Language testing in Asia, 3(18), 1-10. https://languagetestingasia.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2229-0443-3-18

Beeby, A. (2000). Evaluating the development of translation competence. In Christina Schäffner and Beverly Adab (Eds.), Developing translation competence (pp. 185-198). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd edition.). The Guilford Press.

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgun, D. E., & Demirel, F. (2009). Scientific research methods. (4th edition). Pegem Academy Publications.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modelling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. (2nd edition). Routledge.

Cabrera-Nguyen, P. (2010). Author guidelines for reporting scale development and validation results in the Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research. Journal of the society for social work and research, 1(2), 99-103. http://10.5243/jsswr.2010.8

Cohen, J. W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for lee behavioural sciences (2nd edition). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th edition). Routledge.

Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd edition). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Çelik, H. E., & Yilmaz, V. (2016). Structural equation modelling with LISREL 9.1: Basic concepts-applications-programming. Ani Publishing.

Devellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (3rd edition). Sage.

EMT Competence Framework 2017. (2017, December). European Union. Retrieved November 27, 2021, from https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/emt_competence_fwk_2017_en_web.pdf

Erkuş, A. (2014). Measurement and scale development in psychology I: Basic concepts and operations (2nd edition). Pegem Academy Publications.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd edition). Sage.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2011). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th edition). McGraw-Hill.

Green, P.B., & Salkind, N.J. (2005). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analysing and understanding data (4th edition). Pearson.

Göpferich, S. (2009). Towards a model of translation competence and its acquisition: the longitudinal study transcomp. In S. Göpferich, A. L. Jakobsen, & I. M. Mees (Eds.), Behind the mind: methods, models and results in translation process research (pp. 12-37). Samfundslitteratur.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th edition). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Harrington, D. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis. Oxford University.

Ho, R. (2006). Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis and interpretation with SPSS. Chapman & Hall/CRC Taylor and Francis Group.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modeling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254742561_Structural_Equation_Modeling_Guidelines_for_Determining_Model_Fit

Hönig, H. G. (1995). Construktives übersetzen. Stauffenburg.

Hönig, H. (1991). Holmes’ “mapping theory" and the landscape of mental translation processes. In T. Naaijkens, & K. M. van Leuven-Zwart (Eds.), Translation studies: The state of the art, proceedings of the first James S. Holmes symposium on translation studies (pp. 77-89). Rodopi.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut-off criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.

Hurtado Albir, A. (2015). The acquisition of translation competence: Competences, tasks, and assessment in translator training. Metadata, 60(2), 256-280. https://doi.org/10.7202/1032857ar

Hurtado Albir, A. (2017). Research translation competence by pacte group. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Kiraly, D. (2000), A social constructivist approach to translator education: Empowerment from theory to practice. Jerome Publishing.

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principle and practice of structural equation modeling (4th edition). The Guilford Press.

Neubert, A. (2000). Competence in language, in languages, and in translation. In C. Schäffner & B. Adab (Eds.), Developing translation competence (pp. 3-18). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

PACTE. (2003). Building a translation competence model. In F. Alves (Ed.), Triangulating translation: Perspectives in process oriented research (pp. 1-26). John Benjamins.

PACTE. (2011). Results of the validation of the pacte translation competence model: Translation project and dynamic translation index. In S. O'Brien (Ed.), IATIS Yearbook 2010 (pp. 1-33). Continuum.

Pym, A. (2013). Translation skill-sets in a machine-translation age. Meta, 58(3), 487-503. https://doi.org/10.7202/1025047ar

Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2006). A first course in structural equation modeling. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schäffner, C., & Adab, B. (2000), Introduction. In C. Schäffner & B. Adab (Eds.), Developing translation competence (pp. vii-x). John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.38.01sch

Schaeffer, M., D. Huepe, S. Hansen-Schirra, S. Hofmann, E. Muñoz, B. Kogan, E. Herrera, A. Ibáñez, & A. M. García. (2019). The translation and interpreting competence questionnaire: an online tool for research on translators and interpreters. Perspectives studies in translation theory and practice, 28(1), 90-108. https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2019.1629468

Schäffner, C. (2000), Running before walking? Designing a translation program at undergraduate level. In C. Schäffner & B. Adab (Eds.), Developing translation competence (pp. 143-156). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Stober, J. (1998). The Frost multidimensional perfection scale revisited: More perfect with four (instead of six) dimensions. Personal and individual differences, 24, 481-491. http://10.1016/S0191- 8869(97)00207-9

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th edition). Allyn and Bacon.

Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. American Psychological Association.

TransComp. (n.d.). The project. TransComp: The development of translation competence. http://gams.uni-graz.at/context:tc

Worthington, R. L., & Whittaker, T. A. (2006). Scale development research: A content analysis and recommendations for best practices. The Consulting Psychologist, 34(6), 806-838.

___

APA Ünal, F. & Çoban, F. (2022). Developing a Translation Competence Scale (TCS) and Evaluating the Opinions of Prospective Translators and Professional Translators in Turkey regarding Translation Competence . Çeviribilim ve Uygulamaları Dergisi , 2022 (32) , 55-90 . DOI: 10.37599/ceviri.1118561