Otizmin Tedavisinde Güncel Beslenme Tedavisi Yaklaşımları

Otizm, tekrarlayıcı ve sınırlayıcı davranışların yanı sıra, sosyal etkileşim ve iletişimdeki bozulmaları içeren, yaşam boyu süren nörogelişimsel bir bozukluktur. Otizmin tedavisinde kanıta dayalı pratikler, kapsamlı tedavi modelleri, tamamlayıcı ve alternatif tıp (özel beslenme programları, vitamin-mineral takviyeleri vb.) ve psikoterapik ilaçlar gibi farklı yaklaşımlar bulunmaktadır. Otizmli çocuklarda belirtilerin farklı şiddette görülmesi, eşlik eden hastalıkların farklılığı ve otizmin nedeninin de tam olarak bilinememesinden dolayı belli bir beslenme tedavisi yaklaşımı bulunmamaktadır. Sıklıkla görülen besin seçiciliği, yeme davranış bozukluğu ve gastrointestinal sorunlar nedeniyle otizmli çocuklarda genellikle bazı besin ögelerinin yetersizlikleri ve bu yetersizliklere bağlı sorunlar ortaya çıkmaktadır. Beslenme tedavisinin hedefleri genellikle yetersizliği görülebilecek besin ögelerinin yerine konulması ve eşlik eden hastalıkların tedavisine yönelik olmaktadır. Uygulanan beslenme tedavisi yaklaşımları otizmli çocuklarda aynı etkiyi göstermediği için beslenme tedavisi, her çocuk için bireysel olarak değerlendirilmeli ve çocuğa özel beslenme planı ve stratejisi geliştirilmelidir. Besin ögesi yetersizlikleri, eşlik eden hastalıklar ve çocuğun besinlere olan yaklaşımı incelenerek çocuğa uygun beslenme stratejileri ve uygulamaları ile yaşam kalitesinin arttırılması amaçlanmalıdır. Bu derleme yazının amacı, otizm ve beslenme arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemek ve otizmli çocuklarda uygulanan beslenme tedavi yaklaşımlarının ne derece etkili olduğunu güncel literatüre dayanarak incelemektir

Current Nutritional Therapy Approaches in Autism Treatment

Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder including impairments in social interaction and communication along with repetitive and restrictive behaviors. There are different approaches in autism therapy such as evidence-based practices, comprehensive therapy models, complementary and alternative medicines (special nutrition programs, vitamin-mineral supplements, etc.) and psychotherapeutic medicines. There is not a specific nutrition therapy approach since symptoms occur with different severity in autistic children as well as coexisting diseases are different and the reason for autism is not completely understood. Frequently observed food selectivity, eating behavior disorders and gastrointestinal problems may cause nutritional deficiency and other problems related to these deficiencies in autistic children. The aims of the nutrition therapy are usually to substitute for insufficient nutritional elements and the treatment of coexisting diseases. Since the applied nutrition therapy approaches do not have the same effect on autistic children, they must be evaluated individually for each child and a personal nutrition plan and strategy must be developed for each child. It should be aimed to increase the quality of life with nutrition strategies and applications suitable for the child by examining nutritional deficiencies, coexisting diseases and the child’s approach to food. The aim of this review paper is to identify the relationship between autism and nutrition and to examine the effects of nutrition therapy approaches applied to autistic children on the basis of the current literature

Kaynakça

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