Multiple roles and enhancements of makers in the post-industrial design practices: An inquiry for non-expertise in design

The present paper aims to reflect possible enhancements of makers in design practices through the shared aspects of criticisms in industrial design. Such criticisms included industrialization’s effects on the rationalization of design processes, separation of design tasks, and separation of the industrial design profession from the artisans and craftspeople. Makers’ multiple roles in post-industrial production and their interpretations of industrial products provided the article for understanding their possible interventions in industrial design. The main research question of this article is as follows: What are the possible enhancements of makers that are useful to overcome the problems of industrialization in design? The present study method included a literature review on various critical aspects of industrial design to demonstrate the ones shared by the makers. Selected quotations from the semi-structured interviews conducted with nineteen maker participants accompany the literature review to introduce their varied skills that emerged in the collaborative practices and their perspectives of making for the generation of new meanings in design. In the last section, makers’ shared aspects with the critical views in design, such as their strategies for gaining autonomy in their practices and creating personal meanings, are discussed to overcome the separation of design tasks and rationalization processes in industrial design.

Kaynakça

Abel, B, V., Klaassen, R., Evers, L., & Troxler, P. (Eds.). (2011). Open Design Now: Why Design Cannot Remain Exclusive. Retrieved from http:// opendesignnow.org/index.html in September 2019.

Akin, Ö. (1996). Frames of Reference in Architectural Design: Analysing the Hyperacclamation (A-h-a-!). Design Studies, 17(4), 341–361.

Atkinson, P. (2010). Boundaries? What Boundaries? The Crisis of Design in a Post-Professional Era. The Design Journal, 13(2), 137–155. Doi: 10.27 52/175470710X12735884220817

Beegan, G. & Atkinson, P. (2008). Professionalism, Amateurism and the Boundaries of Design. Journal of Design History, 21(4), 305–313.

Bell, D. (1999). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books. (Original work published in 1976).

Boeva, Yana. (2018). Break, Make, Retake: Interrogating the Social and Historical Dimensions of Making as a Design Practice (Doctoral dissertation). York University, Faculty of Graduate Studies, TORONTO.

Bousbaci, R. (2008). Models of Man in Design Thinking: The Bounded Rationality Episode. Design Issues, 24(4), 38–52. Doi: 10.1162/desi.2008.24.4.38

Bredies, K. Joost, G. & Chow, R. (2009). Designers and Users: Comparing Constructivist Design Approaches. Proceedings of the 8th European Academy of Design Conference, Aberdeen, 71–75.

Bunnell, K. (2004). Craft and Digital Technology [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.autonomatic.org.uk/ archive/team/kb/craft%20and%20digital% 20technology.pdf in September 2019.

Cohen, D. (2009). Three Lectures On Post-Industrial Society. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The MIT Press.

Cross, N. (1981). The Coming of Post-industrial Design. Design Studies, 2(1). 3–7.

Cross, N. (2006). Designerly Ways of Knowing [E-book Version]. Retrieved from https://www.springer.com/ gp/book/9781846283000#otherversion=9781846283017 in September 2019.

Crouch, C. & Pearce, J. (2012). Doing Research in Design. Oxford : Berg.

Dilnot, C. (2013). The Question of Agency in The Understanding of Design. Journal of Design History, 26(3), 331–337.

Dorst, K. & Dijkhuis, J. (1995). Comparing Paradigms for Describing Design Activity. Design Studies, 16(2), 261–274.

Escobar, A. (2015). Transiciones: A Space for Research and Design for Transitions to The Pluriverse. Design Philosophy Papers. 13(1), 13–23. Doi: 10.1080/14487136.2015.1085690

Escobar, A. (2018). Designs for the Pluriverse: Radical Interdependence, Autonomy, and the Making of Worlds. Durham, London: Duke University Press.

Findeli, A. (2001). Rethinking Design Education for the 21st Century: Theoretical, Methodological, and Ethical Discussion. Design Issues, 17(1), 5–17.

Folkmann, M. N. (2014). Unknown Positions of Imagination in Design. Design Issues, 30(4), 6–19.

Fry, T. (1994). Remakings: Ecology, Design, Philosophy. Sydney: Envirobook.

Gero, J. S. & Kannengiesser, U. (2004). The Situated Function–Behaviour– Structure Framework. Design Studies. 25(4). 373–391.

Hermans, G. (2015). Opening Up Design Engaging the Layperson in the Design of Everyday Products (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå University, Umeå Institute of Design, UMEA.

Himanen, P. (2001). The Hacker Ethic and the Spirit of the Information Age. New York: Random House.

Jackson, A. (2010). Constructing at Home: Understanding the Experience of the Amateur Maker. Design and Culture, 2(1), 5–26.

Kaya Pazarbasi, C. (2017). Contemporary Art and Critical Perspectives in Industrial Design Education. Design Philosophy Papers. 15(2). 119–132.

Lawson, B. R. (1979). Cognitive Strategies in Architectural Design. Ergonomics, 22(1), 59–68.

Lindtner, S. (2014). Hackerspaces and the Internet of Things in China: How Makers Are Reinventing Industrial Production, Innovation, and The Self. China Information, 28(2), 145– 167. Doi: 10.1177/0920203X14529881

Lindtner, S., Bardzell, S., & Bardzell, J. (2016). Reconstituting The Utopian Vision of Making: HCI After Techno Solutionism, CHI’16 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, San Jose, California, USA, May 7-12. Doi: 10.1145/2858036.2858506

Loh, P., Burry, J., & Wagenfeld, M. (2016). Reconsidering Pye’s Theory of Making Through Digital Craft Practice: A Theoretical Framework Towards Continuous Designing. Craft Research, 7(2), 187–206. Doi: 10.1386/ crre.7.2.187_1

Manzini, E. (2015). Design, When Everybody Designs: An Introduction to Design for Social Innovation. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human Problem Solving. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Pierri, P. (2017) Decentralising Design. Raising The Question of Agency in Emerging Design Practice. The Design Journal, 20(1). S2951–S2959, Doi: 10.1080/14606925.2017.1352805

Rittel H. W. J. & Webber M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–169.

Sabiescu, A., Woolley, M., Cummings, C. & J. Prins. (2015). Online Maker Communities: Craft and Engagement with Cultural Heritage, Communities and Technologies, Limerick, Ireland, June 27-30. Retrieved from https://culturalheritagecommunities. files.wordpress.com/2015/06/chcomm_ 2-0.pdf in September 2019.

Sanders, E., & Stappers, P.J. (2008). Co-Creation and The New Landscapes of Design. CoDesign, 4(1), 5–18.

Schön, D. A. (2017). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. London: Routledge. (Original work published in 1983).

Simon, H. A. (1973). The Structure of Ill Structured Problems. Artificial Intelligence. 4, 181–201.

Simon, H. A. (2008). The Sciences of The Artificial. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. (Original work published in 1969).

Storni, C. (2012). Unpacking Design Practices: The Notion of Thing in the Making of Artifacts. Science, Technology, & Human Value, 37(1), 88–123. Doi: 10.1177/0162243910392795

Taylor, J. & Townsend, K. (2014). Reprogramming The Hand: Bridging The Craft Skills Gap in 3D/Digital Fashion Knitwear Design. Craft Research, 5(2). 155–174.

Von Busch, O. (2010). Exploring Net Political Craft: From Collective to Connective. Craft Research. 1(1), 113–124.

Von Busch, O. (2012). Molecular Management: Protocols in The Maker Culture. Creative Industries Journal. 5(1-2), 55–68.

Wakkary, R. (2009). Anything Is a Fridge: The Implications of Everyday Designers. Interactions, 16(5), 12–17.

Willis, A-M. (2006). Ontological Designing. Design Philosophy Papers, 4(2). 69–92.

Kaynak Göster