Parenteral Beslenen Hastaların Endikasyonları Ne Kadar Uygun?

Amaç: Parenteral nütrisyon (PN), intravenöz beslenme sağlayan bir tedavi yöntemidir. PN klinik sonuçları iyileştirebildiği gibi, komplikasyonlara bağlı olarak mortalite ve morbiditede artışa neden olabilmektedir. Bu çalışmamızın amacı, PN endikasyonlarını değerlendirmek, uygun olmayan PN başlanma oranını belirlemek ve kalori yeterliliğini incelemektir. Yöntem: PN başlanan tüm hastalar, nütrisyon hemşiresi ve diyetisyen tarafından hastane veri tabanından belirlenerek ziyaret edildi. Hastaların demografik verileri, yattığı servisi, tanısı, PN uygunluğuna, endikasyonlarına, alınan kalori miktarı ve yeterliliğine bakıldı. PN alan her bir hasta, Avrupa Klinik Beslenme ve Metabolizma Derneği (ESPEN) klavuzuna göre incelenerek “uygun” ve “uygun olmayan” olarak sınıflandırıldı. Ayrıca PN alan hastalar, Periferal PN, Santral PN, Enteral+PN, Oral+PN olarak 4 kategoriye ayrıldı. Bulgular: Hastanemizde altı aylık süre boyunca 333 hastaya PN uygulandığı saptandı. PN’na, beslenmeye engel kusma (%37), obstrüktif bağırsak hastalığı (%27), ağır diyare (%12) ve ağır malabsorbsiyon (%12) nedeniyle başlanmıştı. Hastaların 153 (%45.9)’üne uygun olmayan endikasyon ile başlanmıştı. Uygun olmayan endikasyon nedenleri arasında en sık doktorun konservatif olarak PN tercih etmesinin (142 olgu, %92.8) olduğu görüldü. PN başlanan hastaların 256’sı (%76.9) yetersiz kalori almaktaydı. Hastaların beslenmesinde en sık periferik parenteral nütrisyon (PPN) (155 olgu, %46.5) yol tercih edilmiş, uygun olmayan endikasyon ile PN (%40) ve yetersiz kalori ile beslenme de (%98.1) bu grupta görülmüştür. Sonuç: Herhangi bir nedenle yeterli oral veya enteral beslenemeyen hastalara, tek başına PN veya enteral nütrisyona ek olarak PN başlanmaktadır. PN ile ilgili risklerin en aza indirilmesi için PN endikasyonları iyi bilinmeli, bunun için beslenme odaklı eğitimler planlanmalıdır. Uygun olmayan endikasyon ve yetersiz kalori uygulanma riskine karşı hastane nütrisyon destek ekibi (NDE)’nin önerilerinin dikkate alınması gerektiğini düşünüyoruz.

How Appropriate Are the Indications for Parenteral Nutrition Patients?

Objective: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a treatment method that provides intravenous nutrition. PN may improve clinical outcomes and may lead to an increase in mortality and morbidity due to complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications of PN, to determine the incidence of inappropriate initiation of PN , and to investigate caloric adequacy. Method: All patients who started to receive PN were identified from the hospital database and visited by the nutrition nurse and dietician. Demographic data, service, diagnosis, PN compliance, indications, calorie intake and adequacy of the patients were evaluated. Each patient receiving PN was examined according to the guidelines of the European Association of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and classified as “appropriate” and “inappropriate”. In addition, patients receiving PN were divided into 4 categories as Peripheral PN, Central PN, Enteral+PN, Oral+PN. Results: In our hospital, 333 patients underwent PN for six months. PN was started due to vomiting preventing oral intake (37%), obstructive bowel disease (27%), severe diarrhea (12%) and severe malabsorption (12%). In 153 (45.9%) patients PN were started with inappropriate indication. The most frequent reasons for inappropriate indication were the preference of the doctor for conservative PN (142 cases, 92.8%). While 256 (76.9%) of the patients who started PN were receiving inadequate calorie intake. Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) (155 cases, 46.5%) was most frequently preferred in the nutrition of the patients, inappropriate indication for PN (40%) and inadequate calorie intake (98.1%) were seen in this group. Conclusion: In patients who cannot receive adequate oral or enteral nutrition for any reason, PN is initiated alone or in addition to enteral nutrition. In order to minimize the risks associated with PN, PN indications should be well known and nutrition-oriented training should be planned. We believe that the recommendations of the hospital nutritional support team (NDE) should be taken into consideration against the risk of inappropriate indication and insufficient calorie administration.

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