Müşteri Memnuniyetinin Öncülleri ve Ardılları: Otel İşletmeleri Üzerine Bir Model Analizi

Bu araştırmada, müşteri memnuniyetinin öncülleri olarak fonksiyonel uyum ve benlik uyumu, ardılları olarak ise tutumsal sadakatin bilişsel, duygusal ve eğilimsel sadakat bileşenleri ele alınmıştır. Araştırmanın amacı, fonksiyonel uyumun ve benlik uyumunun müşteri memnuniyetine etkilerini belirlemek ve müşteri sadakatinin oluşumunda memnuniyetin rolünü açıklamaktır. Araştırmanın veri toplama aracı Fethiye destinasyonundaki beş yıldızlı otel işletmelerinde konaklayan 309 katılımcıya uygulanmış, araştırmanın kuramsal modeli ise PLSSEM yoluyla analiz edilmiştir. Bu bağlamda, fonksiyonel uyumun ve benlik uyumunun müşteri memnuniyetini olumlu etkilediği, ancak fonksiyonel uyumun etkisinin daha yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, müşteri memnuniyetinin bilişsel ve duygusal sadakati olumlu etkilediği, ancak eğilimsel sadakat üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisinin bulunmadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction: A Model Analysis on Hotel Enterprises

In this research, functional congruity and self-congruity are considered as the antecedents, and cognitive, affective and conative components of customer loyalty are discussed as the consequences of customer satisfaction. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of functional congruity and self-congruity on customer satisfaction and to explain the role of satisfaction in building customer loyalty. Data collection tool of the research was applied to 309 participants staying in five-star hotels in Fethiye destination and the theoretical model was tested through PLS-SEM analysis. Within this context, it was determined that functional congruity and self-congruity positively influence customer satisfaction, but the effect of functional congruity is greater. It was also concluded that customer satisfaction positively influences cognitive and affective loyalty, but its effect on conative loyalty is not significant.

Kaynakça

Ali, F., Kim, W. G., Li, J. ve Cobanoglu, C. (2018). A Comparative Study of Covariance and Partial Least Squares Based Structural Equation Modelling in Hospitality and Tourism Research, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1): 416-435.

Anderson, J. C. ve Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach, Psychological Bulletin, 103(3): 411- 423.

Back, K. J. (2005). The Effects of Image Congruence on Customers’ Brand Loyalty in the Upper Middle-Class Hotel Industry, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 29(4): 448-467.

Back, K. J. ve Parks, S. C. (2003). A Brand Loyalty Model Involving Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Brand Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 27(4): 419-435.

Bosnjak, M., Sirgy, M. J., Hellriegel, S. ve Maurer, O. (2011). Postvisit Destination Loyalty Judgments Developing and Testing a Comprehensive Congruity Model, Journal of Travel Research, 50(5): 496-508.

Bowen, J. T. ve Chen, S. L. (2001). The Relationship between Customer Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 13(5): 213-217.

Çabuk, S., Nakıboğlu, B. ve Canoğlu, M. (2013). Algılanan Otel İmajı ve Hizmet Kalitesi ile Tekrar Satın Alma Niyeti Arasındaki İlişkiler, Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 24(1): 96-108.

Chi, C. G. Q. ve Qu, H. (2008). Examining the Structural Relationships of Destination Image, Tourist Satisfaction and Destination Loyalty: An Integrated Approach, Tourism Management, 29(4): 624-636.

Chon, K. S. ve Olsen, M. D. (1991). Functional and Symbolic Congruity Approaches to Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction in Tourism, Journal of the International Academy of Hospitality Research, 3: 2-22.

Ekinci, Y., Dawes, P. L. ve Massey, G. R. (2008). An Extended Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer Satisfaction for Hospitality Services, European Journal of Marketing, 42(1/2): 35-68.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M. ve Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Kaliforniya: Sage Publications, Inc.

Hung, K. ve Petrick, J. F. (2011). The Role of Self-and Functional Congruity in Cruising Intentions, Journal of Travel Research, 50(1): 100-112.

Kılıç, B. ve Sop, S. A. (2012). Destination Personality, SelfCongruity and Loyalty, Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 3(5): 95-105.

Kılıç, İ. ve Pelit, E. (2004). Yerli Turistlerin Memnuniyet Düzeyleri Üzerine bir Araştırma, Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 15(2): 113-124.

Kock, N. (2015). Common Method Bias in PLS-SEM: A Full Collinearity Assessment Approach, International Journal of e-Collaboration (IJeC), 11(4): 1-10.

Kressmann, F., Sirgy, M. J., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S. ve Lee, D. J. (2006). Direct and Indirect Effects of SelfImage Congruence on Brand Loyalty, Journal of Business Research, 59(9): 955-964.

Ladeira, W. J., Santini, F. D. O., Araujo, C. F. ve Sampaio, C. H. (2016). A Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction in Tourism and Hospitality, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 25(8): 975-1009.

Lee, C. L. (1992). A Study of Japanese Guests’ Satisfaction with Hotel Attributes and Performance in Taiwan. (Basılmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Las Vegas: Nevada Üniversitesi, Otel İşletmeciliği Ana Bilim Dalı.

Lei, M. ve Lomax, R. G. (2005). The Effect of Varying Degrees of Nonnormality in Structural Equation Modeling, Structural Equation Modeling, 12(1): 1-27.

Levy, S. J. (1959). Symbols for Sale, Harvard Business Review, 37(4): 117-124.

Litvin, S. W. ve Goh, H. K. (2002). Self-Image Congruity: A valid Tourism Theory?, Tourism Management, 23(1): 81- 83.

Merli, R., Preziosi, M., Acampora, A., Lucchetti, M. C. ve Ali, F. (2018). The Impact of Green Practices in Coastal Tourism: An Empirical Investigation on An EcoLabelled Beach Club, International Journal of Hospitality Management, (Basımda), https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ijhm.2018.08.011.

Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty?, The Journal of Marketing, 63 (Special Issue): 33-44.

Sirgy M. J. ve Johar, J. S. (1999). Toward an Integrated Model of Self-Congruity and Functional Congruity, E-European Advances in Consumer Research, 4: 252-256.

Sirgy, M. J. (2014). Revisiting Self-Congruity Theory in Travel and Tourism. İçinde N. K. Prebensen, J. S. Chen ve M. Uysal (Editörler), Creating Experience Value in Tourism (ss. 63-78). Londra: CAB Internationals.

Sirgy, M. J. (1985). Using Self-Congruity and Ideal Congruity to Predict Purchase Motivation, Journal of Business Research, 13(3): 195-206.

Sirgy, M. J. ve Su, C. (2000). Destination Image, SelfCongruity, and Travel Behavior: Toward an Integrative Model, Journal of Travel Research, 38(4): 340-352.

Sop, S. A. (2017). Marka Kişiliği, Benlik Uyumu ve Fonksiyonel Uyumun Marka Sadakatine Etkileri: Otel İşletmelerine Yönelik Bir Araştırma. (Basılmamış Doktora Tezi). Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi, Turizm İşletmeciliği Ana Bilim Dalı.

Sreejesh, S., Mitra, A. ve Sahoo, D. (2015). The Impact of Customer’s Perceived Service Innovativeness on Image Congruence, Satisfaction and Behavioral Outcomes, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 6(3): 288- 310.

Su, A. Y. L. (2004). Customer Satisfaction Measurement Practice in Taiwan Hotels, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 23(4): 397-408.

Su, N. (2015). US-Based Hotel Brand Personality. (Basılmamış Doktora Tezi). Washington: Washington Devlet Üniversitesi, Otel İşletmeciliği Anabilim Dalı.

Su, N., Mariadoss, B. J. ve Reynolds, D. (2015). Friendship on Social Networking Sites: Improving Relationships between Hotel Brands and Consumers, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 51(8): 76-86.

Tepeci, M. (1999). Increasing Brand Loyalty in the Hospitality Industry, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(5): 223-230.

Tuna, M. (2006). Cultural Approximation and Tourist Satisfaction. İçinde M. Kozak ve L. Andreu (Editörler), Progress in Tourism Marketing (ss. 207-219). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Türk Dil Kurumu [TDK]. (2005). Türkçe Sözlük. Ankara: 4. Akşam Sanat Okulu Matbaası.

Usakli, A. ve Baloglu, S. (2011). Brand Personality of Tourist Destinations: An Application of Self-Congruity Theory, Tourism Management, 32(1): 114-127.

Wilkins, H., Merrilees, B. ve Herington, C. (2010). The Determinants of Loyalty in Hotels, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(1): 1-21.

Yeşiltaş, M., Kanten, P. ve Kanten, S. (2018). Yetenek Yönetimi Stratejilerinin İşe Gömülmüşlük Üzerindeki Etkisinde Psikolojik Sözleşme Algısının Aracılık Rolü, 6. Örgütsel Davranış Kongresi (ss. 1063-1078). Türkiye: Isparta.

Yuksel, A., Yuksel, F. ve Bilim, Y. (2010). Destination Attachment: Effects on Customer Satisfaction and Cognitive, Affective and Conative Loyalty, Tourism Management, 31(2): 274-284.

Kaynak Göster