Manaz Meyvesi (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. ex M. Roem)

Manaz anavatanı kuzey Amerika kıtası özellikle Alaska, batı Kanada ve orta batı ABD olan odunsu bir bitki türüdür. Çalı veya küçük ağaç formuna sahip manaz bitkisi kışın yaprağını döker ve 12 m’ye kadar boylanabilir. Bitki farklı toprak ve asitlik değerlerine toleranslıdır ve aynı zamanda soğuğa çok dayanıklıdır. Anavatanında yıllardır bitkiden gıda, ilaç ve odun olarak faydalanılmaktadır. Bitkinin meyvesi oldukça küçüktür ve olgunlaştığında kırmızıdan mor-siyah bir renge bürünür. Meyve yerliler tarafından kurutulmuş etlere aroma kazandırmak, korumak amacıyla kullanılagelmiştir. Şekerli ve hafif bademi andıran bir tat ve aromaya sahip olan meyve, sıklıkla boyut, tekstür ve aroma olarak maviyemiş ile karıştırılır fakat maviyemişten farklıdır ve botanik olarak daha çok elma, üvez ve alıca benzemektedir. Meyve polifenol antioksidan içeriği bakımından oldukça zengindir. Bitki ayrıca beyaz çiçekleri ve sonbahar yaprak rengi nedeni ile süs bitkisi olarak ta kullanılmaktadır. Bu derleme makalesi manaz bitkisi ile alakalı ilk kapsamlı Türkçe yazındır.

Saskatoon Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. ex M. Roem)

Saskatoon berry is a woody plant species native to the North American continent, and specifically, Alaska, most of north-western Canada, and western and the north-central United States. The plant with a form of a shrub or small tree sheds their leaves in winter and can reach up to 12 m in height. Saskatoon can tolerate wide range of soil pH and texture and is also very cold-hardy. Saskatoon berry has historically been used as food, medicine and wood. The fruit is a quite small, and turn to a color of purple-black from red when it ripens. The fruit has being added to dried meat as flavor and preservative by indigenous people. Sweet and subtle-almond flavored fruit is frequently compared to blueberry in the sense of size, texture and flavor; however, it is different from blueberry and botanically similar to the apple, mountain ash and hawthorn. Saskatoon berry is used an ornamental plant due to especially white flowers and fall leaf color. The fruit is also very rich in polyphenol antioxidant content. This review article is the first Turkish literature related to Saskatoon berry.

Kaynakça

Adhikari, D.P., Francis, J.A., Schutzki, R.E., Chandra, A., Nair, M.G., 2005. Quantification and Characterization of Cyclo-oxygenase and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibitory Anthocyanins in Fruits of Amelanchier. Phytochemical Analysis. 16(3):175–80.

Anonim, 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. No. 450. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Washington, DC. 883, 375.

Anomim, 2014a. Taxon: Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi- bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?2870, Erişim tarihi: 16.05.2014.

Anonim, 2014b. Our History. http://sreda.com/Digital_Editions/Livingbook/files/assets/downloads/page0006.pdf, Erişim tarihi: 14.02.2014.

Anonim, 2014c. Amelanchier Systematics and Evolution. University of Maine http://sbe.umaine.edu/amelanchier/?page_id=24, Erişim tarihi: 05.02.2014.

Ardayfio, N.K., 2012. Juneberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) Micropropagation and Cultivar Evaluation in North Dakota, MSc Thesis, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA.

Bhagwat, S., Haytowitz, D.B., Holden, J.M., 2011. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. Release 3. Sponsor. USDA-ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/Flav/Flav_R03.pdf, Erişim tarihi: 10.02.2014.

Car, R.L., 2014. Flora of Eastern Washington and Adjacent Idoha. Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. Ex M. Roemer. http://web.ewu.edu/ewflora/Rosaceae/Amelanchier%20alnifolia.html, Erişim tarihi: 13.02.2014.

Davidson, C.G., Mazza, G., 1991 Variability of Fruit Quality and Plant Height in Populations of Saskatoon Berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.). Fruit Varieties Journal. 45(3):162-165.

Dyrness, C.T., Acker, S.A., 2010. Ecology of Common Understory Plants in Northwestern Oregon and Southwestern Washington Forests. H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon State University. https://web.archive.org/web/20120301172649/http://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/lter/p ubs/webdocs/reports/DyrnessAckerForest_Understory_Plants_20101202.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 05.01.2014.

Flessner, T., 2012. Saskatoon Serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roemer var. semiintegrifolia (Hook.) C.L. Hitchc. USDA NRCS. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_amals.pdf, Erişim tarihi: 06.02.2014.

Hitchcock, C.L., Cronquist, A., Ownbey, M., Thompson, J.W., 1961. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae through Ericaceae University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, 614.

Mazza, G., 2005. Compositional and Functional Properties of Saskatoon Berry and Blueberry. International Journal of Fruit Science. 5(3):101–120.

McGarry, R., Ozga, J.A., Reinecke, D.M., 2005. The Effects of Ethephon on Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) Fruit Ripening. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 130(1):12-17.

Pruski, K., Nowak, J., Grainger, G., 1990. Micropropagation of Four Cultivars of Saskatoon Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia NUTT.). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 21:103-109.

Rogiers, S.Y., Knowles, N.R., 2000. Efficacy of Low O2 and High CO2 Atmospheres in Maintaining the Postharvest Quality of Saskatoon Fruit (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 80(3)-623-660.

Rop, O., Řezníček, V., Mlček, J., Juríková, T., Sochor, J., Kizek, R., Humpolíček, P., Balík J., 2012. Nutritional Values of New Czech Cultivars of Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.). Horticultural Sciences (Prague). 39(3):123–128.

Schorger, A.W., 1955. The Passenger Pigeon: Its History and Extinction. University of Wisconsin Press. Madison USA.

St-Pierre, R.G., 2005. Growing Saskatoons - A Manual for Orchardists, University of Saskatchewan, News & Publications Office.

St-Pierre, R.G., Zatylny, A.M., Tullach, H.P., 2005. Evaluation of Growth and Fruit Production Characteristics of 15 Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) Cultivars at Maturity. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 85(4)-929-932.

Wilson, B., 1993. Saskatoon berries. Bemidji, MN: Summer Harvest Berry Farm, 5.

Zatylny, A.M., St-Pierre, R.G., Tulloch, H.P., 2002. Comparative Agronomic Performance of 15 Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) Cultivars during their First Seven Years of Growth. Journal American Pomological Society. 56(2):118-128.

Kaynak Göster