In Vitro Assessment of Milk Thistle Seeds as a Natural Anti-Aflatoxin B1

Milk thistle (MT) or Silybum marianum is a weed that grows in many parts of the world. Since centuries, its seeds are used as herbal remedies for many diseases. In this study, an in- vitro model was designed to mimic the temperature, pH, and the time of passage of seeds through the stomachs and the intestinal tracts of chickens to investigate the absorption capacity of MT seeds for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Forty-eight flasks, each containing 25 g of rice and 250 or 500 µg/kg AFB1 in the presence of 125, or 250 mg MT seeds were used in six treatments with two samples and four replicates, I) 250 µg/kg of rice contaminated with AFB1 as the control; II) 500 µg/kg AFB1 as a control; III) 125 mg MT seeds plus 250 µg/kg AFB1; IV) 125 mg MT seeds plus 500 µg/kg AFB1; V) 250 mg of MT seeds plus 250 µg/kg AFB1; VI) 250 mg MT seeds plus 500 µg/kg AFB1. A high proportion of milk thistle was bound by 250 µg/kg of AFB1 in treatment number V. The highest and lowest levels of AFB1, i.e., 331.64±9.57 µg/kg and 45.62±4.25 µg/kg, were determined in treatments II and V, respectively. The mechanism by which MT seeds diminish AFB1 is not fully understood. MT seeds are a rich source of fiber, and therefore, they may have a high capacity for binding to the aflatoxin. On the other hand, silymarin, a component of MT seeds, is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid that has antioxidant properties. Polyunsaturated fatty acids may also act as antioxidants, where by preventing the absorption or bioactivation of mycotoxins by enhancing their metabolism and excretion. It was concluded that the MT seeds were able to effectively diminish AFB1 in vitro.

Meryemana Dikeni Tohumlarının Doğal Anti-Aflatoksin B1 Olarak In Vitro Değerlendirmesi

Meryemana dikeni (MD) veya Silybum marianum, dünyanın pek çok yerinde yetişen yabani bir ottur. Tohumları birçok hastalıkta bitkisel ilaç olarak yüzyıllardır kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, meryemana dikeni tohumlarının aflatoksin B1’e (AFB1) yönelik emilme kapasitesini araştırmak için; sıcaklığı, pH değerini ve tohumların tavukların mide ve bağırsak yollarından geçiş süresini taklit edecek bir in vitro model tasarlanmıştır. 48 adet şişe; her biri 25 g pirinç, 125 veya 250 mg meryemana dikeni tohumu, 250 veya 500 μg/kg AFB1 içerecek şekilde, 2 örnekli 6 uygulama grubu ile 4 tekrarlı olarak kullanılmıştır. I) kontrol olarak AFB1 ile kontamine 250 ug/kg pirinç; II) kontrol olarak 500 μg/kg AFB1; III) 125 mg MD tohumuna ilaveten 250 ug/ kg AFB1; IV) 125 mg MD tohumuna ilaveten 500 μg/kg AFB1; V) 250 mg MD tohumuna ilaveten 250 μg/kg AFB1; VI) 250 mg MD tohumuna ilaveten 500 μg/kg AFB1. Meryemana dikeninin büyük bir kısmı, V. uygulama grubundaki 250 μg/kg AFB1 tarafından bağlanmıştır. En yüksek 331,64±9,57 μg/kg ve en düşük 45,62±4,25 μg/kg AFB1 seviyeleri, sırasıyla II. ve V. uygulamalarda belirlenmiştir. MD tohumlarının, AFB1 düzeyini azaltma mekanizması tam olarak anlaşılamamıştır. MD tohumları zengin bir lif kaynağıdır ve bu nedenle, yüksek aflatoksin bağlama kapasitesine sahip olabilir. Bunun yanı sıra, MD tohumlarının bir bileşeni olan silymarin, antioksidan özelliklere sahip doğal bir polifenolik flavonoiddir. Çoklu doymamış yağ asitleri, mikotoksinlerin metabolizma ve atılımlarını arttırarak, emilimlerini veya biyolojik aktivasyonlarını önlediğinden, antioksidan olarak rol oynayabilmektedirler. MD tohumlarının in vitro olarak AFB1 düzeyini etkili bir şekilde azaltabildiği sonucuna varılmıştır.


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