JUAN GOYTİSOLO’NUN MARX’LARIN ÖYKÜSÜ ROMANINDA TARİHSEL İZLENİMLER

uan Goytisolo İç savaş sonrası İspanyol edebiyatının önemli yazarlarından birisidir.Birçok kere Türkiye’ye gelmiş olan yazar ülkemiz ile ilgili pek çok çalışma yayımlamıştır. Doğu kültürünü çok iyi tanıyan yazarın özellikle son dönemlerde kaleme aldığı romanlarında Türk kültürünün unsurlarını görmek mümkündür. Yazarın bazı kitaplarıTürkçe’ye çevrilmesine rağmen dilimizde Goytisolo hakkında yapılan çalışmalar çok azdır. Bu makalenin amacı yazarın Marx’ların Öyküsü adlı romanını tarihsel olarak incelemek ve bunun sonucunda Türkiye’de Çağdaş İspanyol edebiyatı üzerine incelemeler yapan kişilerin ilgisini bir nebze olsun yazara ve eserlerine çekmektir.Goytisolo 5 Ocak 1931 tarihinde Barselona’da doğmuştur. Yazarın doğduğu yıl İspanya tarihinin en çalkantılı dönemlerinden birini oluşturmaktadır. Nisan 1931 tarihinde, yazarın doğduğu tarihten üç ay sonra, ülkede Cumhuriyet ilan edilir. Yeni siyasi rejim ile birlikte ülkede XX. yüzyıla uygun birçok reform gerçekleştirilir. Böylece ülke sosyal, ekonomik ve siyasal olarak ilerlemeye başlar. Fakat bu ilerlemeler planlanan şekilde sonuçlar vermez. Ne yazık ki Cumhuriyetin ilanı ile ülkede iç savaşa giden yol açılmış olur. Yeni siyasi rejimi destekleyenler ve cumhuriyet döneminden önce var olan krallık düzeni yanlıları birbirine girmişlerdir. Böylelikle yazar küçük yaşta İspanya İç Savaşı’na (1936-1939) tanıklık etmek zorunda kalır. General Franco etrafında toplanan milliyetçiler ve cumhuriyetçiler arasında üç yıl süren iç savaşı Nazi Almanyası’nın ve Mussolini İtalyası’nın desteği ile Franco kazanır ve ülkede otuz altı yıl sürecek olan diktatörlük dönemi başlar. Bu nedenle 1939 yılında iç savaşın bitmesi ülkenin siyasi durumunda bir değişikliğe neden olmaz. Tam tersine ülkenin durumu daha çok kötüleşir. Özellikle II. Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra ülke Avrupa devletleri tarafından siyasi yalnızlığa terk edilir. Birleşmiş Milletler ülkeye 1950 yılına kadar sürecek olan yaptırım kararı alır. Ülkenin yalnızlaştığı bu dönemde okul çağında olan yazar Franco diktatörlüğünün eğitim politikasına uygun olarak dini bir eğitim görür. Fakat yazar özellikle üniversite yıllarında baskı rejiminin öngördüğünün dışında farklı bir çizgiye doğru adım atar. Bu dönemde edebiyatla ve politika ile yakından ilgilenir. Öğrencisi olduğu hukuk fakültesini yarıda bırakır ve kendisini tamamen edebiyata verir. İlk romanı yayınlanır. Fakat Franco İspanyası’nda yazar olmak kolay değildir. Dikta rejiminde sansür korkusu bu dönemdeki yazarların edebi yaşamında önemli rol oynamış, yazarların metinlerinde dolaylı anlatıma yönelmesine ve yarım kalan sözcüklü cümleler kullanmalarına neden olmuştur. Yazarın Franco rejiminde kaçma isteği ve daha açık bir toplumda yaşama arzusu Fransa’ya göç etmesine neden olur. Böylece yazar yirmi beş yaşında gönüllü sürgün hayatını seçerek Paris’e göç eder. Paris’te bulduğu özgürlük ortamı hem yazarın siyaset ile daha detaylı ilgilenmesini hem de farklı milliyetlerden yazarlarla tanışmasını sağlar. Böylece İspanya’da roman yazarken sansür faktörünü düşünen İspanyol meslektaşlarının aksine dilediği konuda roman yazma fırsatını bulur. Yazarın budönemdeki romanları kendi hayatından izler taşımasının yanı sıra güncel konular üzerine de yoğunlaşır. Bu durum sonraki dönem romanlarında da devam eder. Böylelikle Bosna Savaşı nedeniyle Kuşatma Hali (El Sitio de Los Sitios)romanını, Körfez Savaşı sonucunda ise Kırk Günlük Süre’yi(La Cuarentena)yazar. Sovyetler Birliği’nin dağılması ile birlikte yazar Marx’ların Öyküsüadlı romanını kaleme almıştır.

HISTORIC IMPRESSIONS IN JUAN GOYTISOLO’S “THEMARX FAMILY SAGA” NOVEL

Juan Goytisolo is one of the most important authors of the Spanish literature after the Civil War. Coming to Turkey many times the author has written a lot of works in relation to our country. It is possible to make out the Turkish culture items particularly in the recently written novels of the author who knows the Eastern values very well. Although some of his books are translated to Turkish, there are a few writings concerning Goytisolo in our language. The purpose of this essay is to study historically the Marx Family Saga novel and, as a result of this, to attract people’s attention to the author who proceeds research in Turkey on the Spanish contemporary literature and to his books. Goytisolo was born on January 5, 1931 in Barcelona. The birth year of the author formed one of the chaotic times in Spanish history. In April 1931, three months after the writer’s birhday, the declaration of republic was made. Many reforms matched to XX. century were made in the country accompanied by the new political system. So, the country started to progress socially, economically and politically. Nevertheless, these advancements did not result as planned. Unfortunately, the declaration of the republic caused the civil war in the country. There was a conflict between the supporters of the new political system and the partisans of the monarchy existing before the republic. Thus, the writer was obliged to witness to the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) at a young age. Because of the aids of Nazi Germany and Mussolini’s Italy, Franco won the three years continued civil war between the nationalists gathered by Franco and the Republicans, and in the country started the dictatorship period taking thirty-six years after that. Therefore, the conclusion of the civil war in 1939 did not change anything in the political situation of the country; on the contrary, it worsened the situation of the country. Principally, the country was isolated politically by the European countries after II. World War. The United Nations imposed sanctions on the country until 1950. In this isolated period of the country, the writer in his school age got the religious education according to the education policy of Franco’s dictatorship. However, the author, especially in his years of the university, took different steps unanticipated by the repressive regime. In this period, he was very interested in literature and politics. He abandoned his education in Faculty of Law and gave himself to literature. His novels started to be published. But it was difficult to be an author in Franco’s Spain. In the repressive regime, the fear of the censorship played an essential role in the literary lives of the authors in that time, and this caused them to tend to use peripharasis and the incomplete sentences in their texts. The desire of the author escaping from Franco’s regime and his wish to live in a open society led him to immigrate to France. Therefore, he immigrated to Paris at the age of twenty-five choosing a life in exile voluntarily. The atmosphere of freedom in Paris provided him to interest in politics in detail and also to come together with the authors of different nationalities. Therefore he found an opportunity to write about every topic he wanted, meanwhile, his Spanish colleagues thought about the censorship in Spain. In that time, the novels of the author not only emphasized the personal subjects but also global issues. This situation continues in progress of time. As a result, the author wrote “El Sitio de Los Sitios” because of the Bosnian War and “La Cuarentena” after the Gulf War. He started to write “The Marx Family Saga” with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Marx Family Saga novel narrates a true political event. The main theme of the novel comprises socialism and marxism, the core of this movement of thought. Consisting of five sections, each part of the novel describes socialism from different perspectives. In the first part, the writer focuses on Karl Marx, the founder of marxism that is fundamentally based on socialism. Using the characterictics of postmodern novel the writer obscures the concepts of space and time and uses anachronism. The writer places Karl Marx and his family who lived in XIXth century to the period of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Marx witnesses astonishedly the consequences of his own theory. One of these consequences is social change. The author concentrates on the concept of the emigration to emphasize this change. As many people living in the countries dominated by the socialist regime, the Albanians mentioned from the first chapter of the novel want to immigrate to Europe or the United States. At this point, the author draws attention to the immigration policy of European countries. In the second part of the novel an unnamed writer is mentioned. The mentioned author writes a novel in relation to socialism as Goytisolo. While writing the novel, he speaks with people who live in Karl Marx’s time and gets information from them about him. One of these people is Anselmo Lorenzo. Lorenzo speaks about the London Conference of 1871 assisted by himself and expresses his criticism concerning Marx. So that, the writer goes to Marx’s house. In this part, is especially emphasized Marx’s personality and his political position. The author narrates to reader Marx’s life in the third part. He descibes the economic problems of Marx and his family on the one hand and mentions his theory like the notion of the equality of woman and man on the other. In the fourth part, the unnamed author is in the discussion program assisted by the defenders of the different ideas and nationalities. The programme topic is Marxicism and Soviet Socialist Republics Union. The writer speaks with Mikhail Bakunin about the free market economy and economic equality before the programme. In the last part of the novel, the writer goes to Marx’s tomb in London. In the cemetery, he sees Lenchen, the faithful servant of the family. Lenchen mentions to the writer about economic dificulties of the family. The novel finishes with faxes sent by Albanians to the writer to thank him to ship them to the United States by fiction in his novel. The novel consists of the historical events on the one hand and biographical elements on the other. Recognizing to write a realist novel the author informs the reader about Marx and his family. For that reason, in the beginning the author writes bibliographical information about Marx and his family and at the end of the novel and about the people’s names mentioned in the novel. In the part of the bibliography he lists the names of the books used by the author while writing this novel. So the reader feels like reading a both historical and biographical novel. In his novel published in 1993, Juan Goytisolo who pays close attention to the global issues treats the strategic issue as the collapse of the Soviet Union being the historical and political subject. Goytisolo makes use of the characteristics of the postmodern novel to write this important event. The reader is informed about the daily life of Marx, the founder of the theory that underpins USSR. He points to different perspectives in the arguments of the doctrine of the famous philosopher. The underlying desire of the writer is to show that Marx’s theory contains social contradictions. The women’s lives in his family is only one of these typical examples of these social contradictions. One of the accentuated point of the writer in the novel is about the emigrants. The consequences of the wars and the events after the dissolution of USSR and Yugoslavia causes an increase of the immigration to Europe from the Balcan countries specially at the beginning of 90’s. In his novel the writer contextualizes this issue by the way of Albanians and criticize the immigration policy of Europe.

Kaynakça

ERSOY CANPOLAT, Yıldız (1993). İçSavaş Sonrası İspanyol Romanı. Ankara: Gündoğan.

GOYTISOLO, Juan (1986). En Los Reinos de Taifa. Barcelona: Seix Barral.

GOYTISOLO, Juan (1993). Yeryüzünde Bir Sürgün. Çev. Neyire Gül Işık. İstanbul: Metis.

GOYTISOLO, Juan (1997). Marx’ların Öyküsü. Çev. Muhiddin Karkın. İstanbul: İletişim.

GÖKÇİMEN, Ahmet (2008). “Hıdır Deryayev’in Harasat Romanında Sosyalist Gerçekçi Açıdan Eski-Yeni Çatışması / The Old-New Conflict In Harasat By Hıdır Deryayev From The Perspective Of Socialist Realism.” TURKISH STUDIES –International Periodical for the Languages, Literature, and History of Turkish or Turkic-, ISSN: 1308-2140, Volume 3/2, Spring 2008, www.turkish.net, DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.303 , p. 370-381.

KARATAŞ, Ömer Faruk (2013). “Hilmi Yavuz’un Doğu Şiirleri’ne Toplumcu Gerçekçi Bir Yaklaşım / A Socialist Realism Approach To Hilmi Yavuz’s Doğu Şiirleri.” TURKISH STUDIES –International Periodical for the Languages, Literature, and History of Turkish or Turkic-, ISSN: 1308-2140, (Prof. Dr. Turgut Karabey Armağanı), Volume 8/13, Fall 2013, www.turkish.net, DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies5797 , p. 1157- 1173.

SANDER, Oral (1991). Siyasi Tarih 1918-1990. 2. Baskı. Ankara: İmge.

ÖZKAN, Ali (2012). “Enver Hoca Döneminde Arnavutluk’ta Din-Devlet İlişkisi.” History Studies. 4: 293-316.

SOMUNCUOĞLU ÖZOT, Gamze (2012). “Postmodern Roman’da Anlatıcı, Zaman ve Mekân Yapısı / Narrator, Time And Space Structure Of Postmodern Novel.” TURKISH STUDIES – International Periodical for the Languages, Literature, and History of Turkish or Turkic-, ISSN: 1308-2140, (Prof. Dr. Sabahattin Küçük Armağanı), Volume 7/3, Summer 2012,

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