1980 Nikaragua Okuryazarlık Kampanyası’ndaki Propaganda Posterlerinin Kitap Okuma Boyutunda İncelenmesi

1979 yılında Nikaragua’da meydana gelen devrim sonucunda Sandinista Ulusal Kurtuluş Cephesi (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN), ülke yönetimini devralmış ve 1980 yılında okuryazarlık kampanyası başlatmıştır. FSLN’nin kurucusu Carlos Fonseca’nın kütüphaneci ve öğretmen olması, kampanyanın ayrı bir önem kazanmasına yol açmıştır. Kampanyada okuryazarlığın ve kitap okumanın önemine vurgu yapılması amacıyla propaganda posterlerinden etkin bir şekilde yararlanılmıştır. Kampanya, 1980 yılında UNESCO Nadezhda K. Krupskaya okuryazarlık ödülüne layık görülmüştür. Çalışmada okuryazarlık kampanyasında okuryazarlığın ve kitap okumanın teşvik edilmesi amacıyla propaganda posterlerinden ne şekilde yararlanıldığı ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla çalışmada Amsterdam’daki Uluslararası Sosyal Tarih Enstitüsü’nden (Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis) propaganda posterlerine ulaşılmış ve ulaşılan propaganda posterlerindeki görsel ve yazılı göstergeler, ABD’li dilbilimci Charles William Morris’in göstergebilimindeki üç boyutu ışığında analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgularda, propaganda posterleri üzerinden okuryazarlığın insanları özgürleştirdiği ileri sürülerek ve okuryazarlık devrimle özdeşleştirilerek insanların okuryazar olmasının ve kitap okumasının teşvik edilmesine çalışıldığı ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

An Examination of the Propaganda Posters in the 1980 Nicaragua Literacy Campaign in the Context of Reading Books

The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) took over the administration of the country as a result of the revolution that took place in Nicaragua in 1979 and started a literacy campaign in 1979. The fact that FSLN's founder, Carlos Fonseca, is a librarian and a teacher, made the campaign gain a special importance. Propaganda posters were used effectively to emphasize the importance of literacy and reading books in the campaign. The campaign was awarded the UNESCO Nadezhda K. Krupskaya literacy award in 1980. It was tried to reveal how propaganda posters were used in literacy campaign in order to encourage literacy and reading books in the study. For this purpose, propaganda posters were accessed from the International Institute of Social History (Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis) in Amsterdam and visual and written indicators in propaganda posters were analyzed in the light of three dimensions in semiotics of the US linguist Charles William Morris. In the findings obtained, it was revealed that efforts were made to encourage people to be literate and to read books asserting the perception that literacy liberates peopleand identifying literacy with revolution through the propaganda posters.

Kaynakça

Aladağ, H. (2019). 1960’lar Sonrası Kütüphanecilik Tarihimiz İçinde Bazı “Kütüphane Haftası” Afişlerinin Roland Barthes’in Göstergebilim Metodu Çerçevesinde Analizi. Uluslararası Sosyal ve Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(12), 133-147. https://doi.org/10.20860/ijoses.601210

Anderson, L. (1992). Surprises and secrets: Lessons from the 1990 Nicaraguan election. Studies in Comparative International Development, 27(3), 93-119.

Angus, E. (1980). The awakening of a people: Nicaragua's Literacy Campaign. Two Thirds, 2(3), 6-32.

Armas, L. (1984). La alfabetización en Nicaragua. Revista Nueva Sociedad, 52, 85-102.

Arnove, R. F. (1981). The Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade of 1980. Comparative Education Review, 25(2), 244-260.

Arnove, R. F. (1987). The 1980 Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade. Ed. Robert F. Arnove, Harvey J. Graff. In National literacy campaigns (pp. 269-292). Boston: Springer.

Arnove, R. F., & Dewees, A. (1991). Education and revolutionary transformation in Nicaragua, 1979-1990. Comparative Education Review, 35(1), 92-109.

Arnove, R. F. (1995a). Education as contested terrain in Nicaragua. Comparative Education Review, 39(1), 28-53.

Arnove, R. F. (1995b). Adult education and state policy in Latin America: The contrasting cases of Mexico and Nicaragua. Comparative Education, 31(3), 311-326.

Azuaje, P. P. (2010). Madre armada y niño. Representación de la mujer nueva en los murales de la Revolución Sandinista en Nicaragua. Apuntes. Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural, 23(1), 8-19.

Baracco, L. (2004). The Nicaraguan literacy crusade revisited: The teaching of literacy as a Nation–building project. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 23(3), 339-354. doi.org/10.1111/j.0261-3050.2004.00112.x

Bataillon, G., & Juárez, V. G. (2013). Los "muchachos" en la revolución sandinista (Nicaragua, 1978-1980). Estudios Sociológicos, 31(92), 303-343.

Bender-Slack, D. (2018). ¡Puño en Alto! The Nicaraguan Literacy Campaign and what it means for literacy today. Educational Studies, 54(3), 271-284. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131946.2017.1411262

Bender-Slack, D. A. (2020). The Nicaraguan Literacy Campaign: The power and politics of literacy. The United States: Lexington Books.

Bloch, T., & Acevedo, A. (1988). Library education in revolutionary Nicaragua. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 28(3), 169-176.

Booth, J. A. (2019). The end and the beginning: The Nicaraguan Revolution, revised and updated. The United Kingdom: Routledge.

Cardenal, F., & Miller, V. (1982). Nicaragua: literacy and revolution. Prospects, 12(2), 201-212.

Cardenal Martínez, S. J. (1980). Fernando Cardenal habla de la Cruzada Nacional de Alfabetización. Encuentro: Revista Académica de la Universidad Centoamericana, (16), 15-16.

Catter, T. V. (2011). Intercultural bilingual education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for improving the quality of education. International Review of Education, 57(5-6), 721-735.

Collins, S. (1987). Education in Nicaragua: What difference can a revolution make?. Social Policy, 18(2), 47-53.

Coraggio, J. L. (1984). Revolución y democracia en Nicaragua. Encuentro: Revista Académica de la Universidad Centroamericana, (21), 5-31.

Cordero, G., & Monge, C. (1981). La cruzada nacional de alfabetización en Nicaragua. Revista Educación, 71-86.

Cuzán, A. G., & Heggen, R. J. (1982). A micro-political explanation of the 1979 Nicaraguan Revolution. Latin American Research Review, 17(2), 156-170.

Cuzán, A. G. (1990). Resource mobilization and political opportunity in the Nicaraguan Revolution: The Theory. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 49(4), 401-412.

Çakı, C., Gazi, M. A., Çakı, G., & Gülada, O. (2020). A Semiotic Analysis on Propaganda Posters During Likbez Campaign. Turkish Librarianship, 34(4), 663-692. Doi: 10.24146/tk.806892

De Diego Romero, J. (2003). Revolución y legitimidad política en América Latina contemporánea: los casos de Cuba y Nicaragua. Revista Complutense de Historia de América, (29), 151-178.

Deiner, J. T. (1981). The Nicaraguan literacy crusade. Journal of Reading, 25(2), 118-125.

De La Pena, S. (1980). Nicaragua: Una revolución andando. Investigación Económica, 39(154), 89-92.

Downs, C., & Kusnetzoff, F. (1982). The changing role of local government in the Nicaraguan Revolution. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 6(4), 533-548.

Fernandez, X. B. P. (1985). Alfabetización y educación de adultos en Nicaragua. Educar, 131-146.

Fisher, S. (1986). The Nicaraguan Revolution and the US response: Lessons for Appalachia. Appalachian Journal, 14(1), 22-37.

Flora, J. L., McFadden, J., & Warner, R. (1983). The growth of class struggle: the impact of the Nicaraguan literacy crusade on the political consciousness of young literacy workers. Latin American Perspectives, 10(1), 45-61.

Frost, L. (1995). The bilingual education of indigenous children in Nicaragua under the 1987 Autonomy Statute: The effective limits of legal change. The International Journal of Children's Rights, 3(1), 51-68.

Garfield, R. M., & Vermund, S. H. (1986). Health education and community participation in mass drug administration for malaria in Nicaragua. Social Science & Medicine, 22(8), 869-877.

Gariazzo, A. (1991). La revolución no da la solución. La mujer en la Nicaragua sandinista. Nueva Sociedad, (113), 51-58.

Gazi, M. A., Çakı, C., Gülada, M. O., & Çakı, G. (2020). The Presentation of Reading Habit in the Propaganda Posters Shaped during the Chinese Culture Revolution in the People's Republic of China. Turkish Librarianship, 34(3), 406-431. Doi: 10.24146/tk.778685

Geale, K. (2010). The effects of mothers’ education on the nutritional outcomes of their children in Nicaragua. SURG Journal, 3(2), 23-30. Doi:10.21083/SURG.V3I2.1094

Gershberg, A. I. (1999). Education 'decentralization' processes in Mexico and Nicaragua: Legislative versus ministry-led reform strategies. Comparative Education, 35(1), 63-80.

González Arana, R. (2010). Nicaragua. Dictadura y revolución. Memorias, 1(10), 231-264.

Gordon, D. R., & Munro, M. M. (1983). The external dimension of civil insurrection: International organizations and the Nicaraguan revolution. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 25(1), 59-81.

Gordon, E. T. (1985). Etnicidad, conciencia y revolución: La cuestión Miskito-Creole en Nicaragua. Encuentro: Revista Académica de la Universidad Centroamericana, (24-25), 117-138.

Gorman, S. M. (1981). Power and consolidation in the Nicaraguan Revolution. Journal of Latin American Studies, 13(1), 133-149.

Guerrero, M. R. (2014). El proceso de institucionalización del poder en Nicaragua: de la revolución sandinista a la Constitución política de 1987. Revista de Estudios Políticos, (163), 157-187.

Guiraud, P. (2016) Göstergebilim. Çev., Mehmet Yalçın. 3. Baskı. Ankara: İmge Kitabevi.

Gurdián, G., & Salamanca, D. (1990). Bilingual education in Nicaragua. Prospects, 20(3), 357-364.

Gülada, M. O. (2019). 1936 Berlin Olimpiyatları'nda Spor Yayıncılığının Propaganda Amaçlı Kullanımı: Olympia Filmi Üzerine İnceleme. TRT Akademi, 4(8), 326-344.

Handa, S., Pineda, H., Esquivel, Y., Lopez, B., Gurdian, N. V., & Regalia, F. (2009). Non-formal basic education as a development priority: Evidence from Nicaragua. Economics of Education Review, 28(4), 512-522.

Hanemann, U. (2006). Nicaragua’s literacy campaign. Paper Commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report, 1-13.

Hernández, G. E., Moncada, G., del Carmen Robles, O., López, S. L., & Terán, L. A. (2008). Reporte sobre el estado actual de la educación de personas jóvenes y adultas en México, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador y Panamá. Revista Interamericana de Educación de Adultos, 30(2), 7-39.

Hodges, D. C. (1986). Intellectual foundations of the Nicaraguan revolution. The United States: University of Texas Press.

IISG (2021a). Zincir Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/1135718, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

IISG (2021b). Özgürlük Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/1135734, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

IISG (2021c). Kitleler Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/1135737, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

IISG (2021d). Yumruk Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/1135749, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

IISG (2021e). Destek Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/1135753, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

IISG (2021f). Savaş Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/1135774, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

IISG (2021g). Okuryazar Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/1135780, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

IISG (2021h). Kadın Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/1177433, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

IISG (2021i). Görev Konulu Propaganda Posteri, https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/939498, Erişim Linki: 28.01.2021.

Jameson, F. (1987). Tomás Borge on the Nicaraguan Revolution. New Left Review, 164, 53-64.

Jamison, D. T., Searle, B., Galda, K., & Heyneman, S. P. (1981). Improving elementary mathematics education in Nicaragua: An experimental study of the impact of textbooks and radio on achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(4), 556–567.

Jiménez, I. M. (1998). La alfabetización popular en El Salvador, Nicaragua y Costa Rica: niveles, tendencias y desfases (1885-1950). Fuentes, 143, 377-393.

Kleinbach, R. (1985). Nicaraguan literacy campaign: its democratic essence. Monthly Review, 37, 75-85.

Kroeger, A., Meyer, R., Mancheno, M., & González, M. (1996). Health education for community‐based malaria control: an intervention study in Ecuador, Colombia and Nicaragua. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 1(6), 836-846.

Krujit, D. (2011). Revolución y contrarrevolución: el gobierno sandinista y la guerra de la Contra en Nicaragua, 1980-1990. Desafíos, 23(2), 53-82.

Lankshear, C. (1986). Dawn of the people: The right to literacy in Nicaragua. The Australian Journal of Education Studies, 7(1), 31-45.

Lankshear, C., Sandiford, P., Montenegro, M. M., Sanchez, G., Coldham, C., & Cassel, J. (1995). Twelve Years On: Women's literacy in a Nicaraguan municipality. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 14(2), 162-171.

MacAdam, C. (1984). Towards democracy: the literacy crusade in Nicaragua. International Review of Education, 30(3), 359-368.

Marini, R. M. (1981). The Nicaraguan Revolution and the Central American Revolutionary Process. Contemporary Marxism, (3), 62-66.

Martinez-Rugama, G. I., Rivas, J. A., & Martinez-Andrades, E. (2017). La educación en Nicaragua. Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomia y Cambio Climático, 3(5), 711-733. https://doi.org/10.5377/ribcc.v3i5.5944

Martínez, J. J. F., & Arrechavala, J. R. (2020). Globalización y Educación en Nicaragua, impacto en el sistema educativo y transformación de las culturas escolares. Revista Compromiso Social, (3), 45-50.

Miller, V. (2019). Between struggle and hope: The Nicaraguan literacy crusade. The United Kingdom: Routledge.

Miron, G. (1995). The development and current status of special education in Nicaragua. Prospects, 25(2), 229-243.

Molyneux, M. (1984). Movilización sin emancipación? Los intereses de la mujer, Estado y revolución en Nicarágua. Revista Desarrollo y Sociedad, (13), 179-195.

Mora, F. (2013). Cinco años de Educación Indígena en Nicaragua. CUHSO· Cultura-Hombre-Sociedad, (1), 259-272.

Mosinger, E. S. (2019). Balance of Loyalties: Explaining Rebel Factional Struggles in the Nicaraguan Revolution. Security Studies, 28(5), 935-975. https://doi.org/10.1080/09636412.2019.1662481

Müller, T. R. (2007). Education and gender in revolutionary societies: Insights from Vietnam, Nicaragua, and Eritrea. Compare, 37(5), 635-650. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057920701420908

Nolff, M. (1982). La vía crucis de la revolución sandinista. Nueva Sociedad, 63, 33-46.

Ortega, M. (1989). Notas sobre la democracia y la revolución en Nicaragua. Realidad: Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, (10), 397-409.

Palazón Sáez, G. D. (2008). Polémicas culturales, compromiso intelectual y revolución en Nicaragua. L'Ordinaire des Amériques, (211), 9-30. https://doi.org/10.4000/orda.2534

Parra, S. (2008). Nicaragua: ¿la alfabetización todavía es revolución?. Diálogos: Educación y Formación de Personas Adultas, 1(53), 43-52.

Peña, R., Liljestrand, J., Zelaya, E., & Persson, L. A. (1999). Fertility and infant mortality trends in Nicaragua 1964-1993. The role of women's education. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 53(3), 132-137. doi: 10.1136/jech.53.3.132

Peña, R., Wall, S., & Persson, L. A. (2000). The effect of poverty, social inequity, and maternal education on infant mortality in Nicaragua, 1988-1993. American Journal of Public Health, 90(1), 64-69. doi: 10.2105/ajph.90.1.64

Pérez, R. S. (2002). La Revolución Sandinista en Nicaragua. Revista de la Universidad de México, (617), 13-21.

Perla, H. (2009). Heirs of Sandino: The Nicaraguan revolution and the US-Nicaragua solidarity movement. Latin American Perspectives, 36(6), 80-100. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X09350765

Polvorosa, J. C. (2002). Retos del sistema educativo nicaragüense. Encuentro, (63), 94-103.

Prevost, G. (1996). The Nicaraguan revolution-six years after the Sandinista electoral defeat. Third World Quarterly, 17(2), 307-328.

Quintanilla, R. (1993). A suspended dialogue: The Nicaraguan revolution and the visual arts. Third Text, 7(24), 25-34.

Robles, L. G., & Lucio-Villegas, E. (2014). Alfabetización, oralidad y participación. Reflexiones sobre una experiencia en Nicaragua. Cuestiones Pedagógicas. Revista de Ciencias de la Educación, (23), 65-84.

Rocha, J. L. (2003). La década de los años 80: revolución en Nicaragua, revolución en la caficultura nicaragüense. Anuario de Estudios Centroamericanos, 29(1-2), 69-99.

Rodríguez, M. V. R. (1990). Nicaragua, una campaña de alfabetización. Cuadernos de Pedagogía, (179), 30-33.

Rooper, A., & Smith, H. (1986). From nationalism to autonomy: the ethnic question in the Nicaraguan revolution. Race & Class, 27(4), 1-20.

Ryan, P. (2000). Structure, agency, and the Nicaraguan Revolution. Theory and Society, 29(2), 187-213. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007015218826

Sáez, G. D. P. (2007). Antes, durante, después de la revolución... la lucha continúa: movimiento feminista en Nicaragua. Lectora: Revista de Dones i Textualitat, (13), 115-132.

Sandiford, P., Lankshear, C., Montenegro, M. M., Sánchez, G., & Cassel, J. (1994). The Nicaraguan Literacy Crusade—How lasting were its benefits?. Development in Practice, 4(1), 35-49. https://doi.org/10.1080/096145249100077481

Schaefer-Rodriguez, C. (1985). Peace, poetry, and popular culture: Ernesto Cardenal and the Nicaraguan revolution. Latin American Literary Review, 13(26), 7-18.

Serra Vázquez, L. H. (1985). Democracia y revolución en Nicaragua. Encuentro: Revista Académica de la Universidad Centroamericana, (23), 70-78.

Shier, H., Padilla, M. L., Molina, N., Barrera, L., Molina, M., Castillo, Z., & Ortiz, K. (2013). Claiming the right to quality education in Nicaragua. Children’s Rights and Education: International Perspectives, 188-202.

Siebert, R. J. (1980). Ernesto Cardenal and the Nicaraguan revolution: from theological theory to revolutionary praxis. CrossCurrents, 30(3), 241-251.

Smith, C. (2008). Revolutionaries and revivalists: Pentecostal eschatology, politics and the Nicaraguan revolution. Pneuma, 30(1), 55-82.

Steppe, J. D., Blake, B. J., Dyal, M. A., Bailey, T. S., Porter, K. J., & Thompson, J. (2020). Conducting a health education needs assessment in rural Nicaragua. Health Education Journal, 79(5), 556-568. https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896919896615

Terradellas, M. R., & Parra, S. (2008). La Red universitaria yo, sí puedo: una buena práctica de cooperación universitaria con la alfabetización de Nicaragua. Diálogos: Educación y Formación de Personas Adultas, 1(53), 35-41.

Torres, R. M. (1980). Nicaragua: revolución y alfabetización. Nueva Antropología, 4(16), 155-176.

Torres, C. A. (1991). The state, nonformal education, and socialism in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Grenada. Comparative Education Review, 35(1), 110-130.

Tünnermann Bernheim, C. (1980). Cruzada Nacional de Alfabetización. Prioridad de la Revolución. Encuentro: Revista Académica de la Universidad Centroamericana, (16), 9-14.

Vannini, M. (2007). El Tren Cultural y el rescate de la memoria de la Cruzada Nacional de Alfabetización. Transatlántica de Educación, (2), 116-124.

Vargas, O. R. (1998). Nicaragua. Revolución, restauración y futuro. Nueva Sociedad, 155, 15-22.

Vilas, C. M. (1990). Nicaragua: El camino de la derrota electoral y el porvenir de la Revolución Sandinista. Realidad: Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, (14), 135-164.

Wright, B. E. (1990). Pluralism and Vanguardism in the Nicaraguan Revolution. Latin American Perspectives, 17(3), 38-54.

Zimmermann, M. (2001). Sandinista: Carlos Fonseca and the Nicaraguan Revolution. The United States: Duke University Press.

Kaynak Göster

APA Gazi, M , Çakı, C , Karaca, M , Çakı, G . (2021). 1980 Nikaragua Okuryazarlık Kampanyası’ndaki Propaganda Posterlerinin Kitap Okuma Boyutunda İncelenmesi . Türk Kütüphaneciliği , 35 (1) , 64-88 . DOI: 10.24146/tk.873618