Boşanma ve Boşanma Sonrası Uyum: Tanımlar, Modeller ve Uyumun Değerlendirilmesi

Boşanma, kararın alınması ve boşanma işlemlerinin sürdüğü dönemlerin yanı sıra boşanma sonrası dönemi de kapsayan stresli bir yaşam dönüşümü sürecidir. Bu süreç, yaşamın neredeyse tüm alanlarını etkilemekte ve hayat koşullarında birçok değişimi beraberinde getirmektedir. Boşanan birey, bir yandan boşanmanın gerçekliğiyle yüzleşir ve ortaya çıkan duygular ve baş edilecek değişimler olduğunu fark eder. Diğer yandan, yeni kimliğine ve yaşam tarzına doğru geçişe odaklanır. Güncel istatistikler hem dünyada hem de ülkemizde boşanma oranlarındaki artışı gözler önüne sermektedir. Dolayısıyla boşanma sürecinin uyum açısından ele alınması önemli görünmektedir. Boşanma ve boşanma sonrası uyum sürecini anlamak amacıyla ileri sürülen pek çok yaklaşım bulunmaktadır. Bu yaklaşımlar, boşanma sonrası uyumu açıklama konusunda farklılaşsa da uyumu boşanma sürecinden ayırmamaktadır. Buradan hareketle, bu gözden geçirme çalışmasının çeşitli amaçları bulunmaktadır. İlk olarak güncel boşanma oranları ve boşanmanın hukuki, ekonomik, sosyal, toplumsal, psikolojik ve fizyolojik sağlık açısından sonuçlarına yer verilecektir. Ardından, boşanma ve boşanma sonrası uyumu açıklayan yaklaşımlar ve uyumun değerlendirilmesi açıklanacaktır. Boşanma ve boşanma sonrası uyumun kapsamlı bir şekilde ele alınmasının boşanan bireyin uygun bilgi ve desteğe erişimini kolaylaştıracağı düşünülmektedir. Ayrıca boşanma ve boşanmaya uyum ile ilgili sürecin doğru anlaşılması araştırmalar açısından da faydalı olacaktır.

Divorce and Post-Divorce Adjustment: Definitions, Models and Assessment of Adjustment

Divorce is a stressful life transformation process that includes the post-divorce stage as well as the stages of decision making and divorce proceedings. This process affects almost all areas of life and causes many changes in living conditions. On the one hand, the divorced individual confronts the reality of the divorce and realizes the intense emotions and changes to deal with. On the other hand, the individual focuses on his/her transition to a new identity and lifestyle. Current statistics reveal the increase in divorce rates both in the world and in our country. Therefore, it seems important to consider the divorce process in terms of adjustment. There are many approaches to examine divorce and post-divorce adjustment process. Although these models differ in explaining post-divorce adjustment, all of them consider adjustment as a part of the divorce process. Thus, this review study has several purposes. First of all, current divorce rates and effects of divorce in legal, economic, social terms and in terms of psychological and physiological health will be included. Then, divorce and post-divorce adjustment models and assessment of adjustment will be explained. It is believed that a comprehensive review of divorce and post-divorce adjustment would facilitate divorced individuals to access appropriate information and support. Besides, correct understanding of the process regarding divorce and divorce-adjustment will be useful for further studies.

Kaynakça

Afifi TO, Cox BJ ve Enns MW (2006) Mental health profiles among married, never-married, and separated/divorced mothers in a nationally representative sample. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 41(2):122-129.

Ahrons CR (1980) Divorce: A crisis of family transition and change. Fam Relat, 29(4):533-540.

Alpaslan AHN (2018) Reframing the death of the marital relationship as an opportunity for growth: a programme for facilitating post-divorce adjustment. Social Work, 54(3):308-326.

Amato PR (2000) The consequences of divorce for adults and children. J Marriage Fam, 62(4):1269-1287.

Amato PR, Hohmann‐Marriott B (2007) A comparison of high‐and low‐distress marriages that end in divorce. J Marriage Fam, 69(3): 621-638.

Amato PR ve Keith B (1991) Parental divorce and adult well-being: A meta-analysis. J Marriage Fam, 53(1):43-58.

Arıkan Ç (1996) Halkın boşanmaya ilişkin tutumları araştırması. https://docplayer.biz.tr/7967854-Halkin-bosanmaya-iliskin-tutumlari-arastirmasi-doc-dr-cigdem-arikan.html (Accessed 5.4.2021).

Asanjarani F, Jazayeri RS, Fatehizade M, Etemadi O ve Demol J (2017) Exploring factors affecting post-divorce adjustment in Iranian women: A qualitative study. Social Determinants of Health, 3(1):15-25.

Berman WH (1988) The role of attachment in the post-divorce experience. J Pers Soc Psychol, 54(3):496-503.

Bevvino DL, Sharkin BS (2003) Divorce adjustment as a function of finding meaning and gender differences. J Divorce Remarriage, 39(3-4):81-97.

Birleşmiş Milletler (2020) 2019 demographic yearbook. https://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic-social/products/dyb/ (Accessed 5.4.2021).

Bloom BL, Hodges WF, Kern MB ve McFaddin SC (1985) A preventive intervention program for the newly separated: Final evaluations. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 55(1):9-26.

Boon C (2005) Women after divorce: exploring the psychology of resilience (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Pretoria, University of South Africa.

Booth A, Amato P (1991) Divorce and psychological stress. J Health Soc Behav, 32(4): 396-407.

Bowen GL, Jensen TM (2017) Late-life divorce and postdivorce adult subjective well-being. J Fam Issues, 38(10): 1363-1388.

Bozdağ CI (2019) Türk hukukunda boşanma sebepleri ve kusurun etkisi (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Konya, KTO Karatay Üniversitesi.

Can Y ve Aksu NB (2016) Boşanma sürecinde ve sonrasında kadın. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 15(58):888-902.

Canbulat N (2017) Boşanmış kadınlarla yürütülen duygu odaklı grupla psikolojik danışmanın etkililiğinin incelenmesi (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). İzmir, Ege Üniversitesi.

Canham SL, Mahmood A, Stott S, Sixsmith J ve O’Rourke N (2014) ’Til divorce do us part: Marriage dissolution in later life. J Divorce Remarriage, 55(8):591-612.

Chiriboga DA (1982) Adaptation to marital separation in later and earlier life. J Gerontol, 37(1):109-114.

Colburn Jr K, Lan Lin P, Moore MC (1992) Gender and the divorce experience. J Divorce Remarriage, 17(3-4):87-108.

Cooney TM, Uhlenberg P (1990) The role of divorce in men's relations with their adult children after mid-life. J Marriage Fam, 52(3):677-688.

Demirbaş A (2018) Güncel tartışmalarla yoksulluk nafakası. İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, 5 (2), 219-235.

Diedrick P (1991) Gender differences in divorce adjustment. J Divorce Remarriage, 14(3-4):33-46.

Doherty WJ, Su S, Needle R (1989) Marital disruption and psychological well-being: A panel study. J Fam Issues, 10(1):72-85.

OECD (2019) Family database. http://www.oecd.org/els/family/database.htm (Accessed 14.2.2020).

Emery R (1994) Renegotiating Family Relationships: Divorce, Child Custody, and Mediation, 2nd ed. New York, The Guilford Press.

Emery RE ve Wyer MM (1987) Child custody mediation and litigation: An experimental evaluation of the experience of parents. J Consult Clin Psychol, 55:179-186.

Fisher BF (1976) Identifying and meeting needs of formerly-married people through a divorce adjustment seminar (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Northern.

Fisher BF (1978) Rebuilding: When your relationship ends. Family Relations Learning Center

Forste R, Heaton TB (2004) The divorce generation: Well-being, family attitudes, and socioeconomic consequences of marital disruption. J Divorce Remarriage, 41(1-2):95-114.

Frisby BN, Booth-Butterfield M, Dillow MR, Martin MM ve Weber KD (2012) Face and resilience in divorce: The impact on emotions, stress, and post-divorce relationships. J. Soc. Pers. Relatsh, 29(6):715-735.

Froiland DJ, Hozman TL (1977) Counseling for constructive divorce. Pers Guid J, 55(9):525-529.

Gove WR ve Shin HC (1989) The psychological well-being of divorced and widowed men and women: An empirical analysis. J Fam Issues, 10(1):122-144.

Güler G (2017) Ebeveyn yabancılaştırma sendromu ve boşanma. Türkiye Klinikleri J Child Psychiatry-Special Topics, 3(3), 225-228.

Hackney H, Bernard JM (1990) Dyadic adjustment processes in divorce counseling. J Couns Dev, 69(2):134-143.

Hemström Ö (1996) Is marriage dissolution linked to differences in mortality risks for men and women? J Marriage Fam, 58:366-378.

Hensley R (1996) Relationship termination and the Fisher Divorce Adjustment Scale: A comparative study. J Divorce Remarriage, 25(1-2):139-150.

Herman SJ (1974) Divorce: a grief process. Perspect Psychiatr Care, 3(12):108-112.

Hill R (1958) 1. Generic features of families under stress. Social Casework, 39(2-3):139-150.

Holmes TH, Rahe RH (1967) The social readjustment rating scale. J Psychosom Res, 11:213-218.

Hope S, Power C, Rodgers B (1999) Does financial hardship account for elevated psychological distress in lone mothers? Soc. Sci. Med, 29:381-389.

Joung IM, Stronks K, Van de Mheen H, van Poppel FW, Van der Meer JBW, Mackenbach JP (1997) The contribution of intermediary factors to marital status differences in self-reported health. J Marriage Fam, 59(2):476-490.

Kalmijn M, Monden CW (2006) Are the negative effects of divorce on well‐being dependent on marital quality? J Marriage Fam, 68(5): 1197-1213.

Kiremitçi M (2014) Boşanma sürecinde müşterek velayet ve toplumsal bakış açısı (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). İstanbul, İstanbul Üniversitesi.

Kitson GC, Holmes WM (1992) Portrait of divorce: Adjustment to marital breakdown. Guilford Press.

Kitson GC, Morgan LA (1990) The multiple consequences of divorce: A decade review. J Marriage Fam, 52(4):913-924.

Kitson GC, Raschke HJ (1981) Divorce research: What we know; what we need to know. Journal of Divorce, 4(3):1-37.

Kramrei E, Coit C, Martin S, Fogo W, Mahoney A (2007) Post-divorce adjustment and social relationships: A meta-analytic review. J Divorce Remarriage, 46(3-4):145-166.

Kressel K (1980) Patterns of coping in divorce and some implications for clinical practice. Fam Relat, 29(2):234-240.

Kübler-Ross E (1969) On death and dying. New York: Macmillan

Levy TM, Joffe W (1978) Counseling couples through separation: A developmental approach. Family Therapy, 5:267-276.

Lillard LA, Waite LJ (1995) 'Til death do us part: Marital disruption and mortality. Am. J. Sociol, 100(5):1131-1156.

Lorenz FO, Simons RL, Conger RD, Elder Jr GH, Johnson C, Chao W (1997) Married and recently divorced mothers' stressful events and distress: Tracing change across time. J Marriage Fam, 59(1):219-232.

Madden-Derdich DA, Leonard SA, Christopher FS (1999) Boundary ambiguity and coparental conflict after divorce: An empirical test of a family systems model of the divorce process. J Marriage Fam, 61(3):588-598.

Mastekaasa A (1997) Marital dissolution as a stressor: Some evidence on psychological, physical, and behavioral changes in the pre-separation period. J Divorce Remarriage, 26(3-4):155-183.

McCubbin H, Patterson J (1983) The family stress process: The double ABCX model of family adjustment and adaptation. Marriage and Family Review, 6(1–2):7-37.

Memişoğlu Bozan AG (2019) Boşanma davalarında nafakalar (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). İstanbul, İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi.

Menaghan EG, Lieberman MA (1986) Changes in depression following divorce: A panel study. J Marriage Fam, 48(2):319-328.

Muñoz-Eguileta A (2007) Irrational beliefs as predictors of emotional adjustment after divorce. J Ration Emot Cogn Behav Ther, 25(1):1-15.

Murphy M, Glaser K, Grundy E (1997) Marital status and long-term illness in Great Britain. J Marriage Fam, 59(1):156-164.

Nikparvar F, Stith S, Dehghani, M, Liang JG (2021) The process of adjusting to divorce after leaving violent marriages: a case study of Iranian women. J Interpers Violence, 36(7-8):4468–4494.

Özcan Çelik B (2015) Genel boşanma sebebi olarak evlilik birliğinin temelinden sarsılması (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Ankara, Ankara Üniversitesi.

Pais J, White P (1979) Family Redefinition: A review of the literature toward a model of divorce adjustment. Journal of Divorce, 2(3):271-281.

Patterson JM (1988) Families experiencing stress: I. The Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response Model: II. Applying the FAAR Model to health-related issues for intervention and research. Family Systems Medicine, 6(2):202-237.

Patterson JM (2002) Integrating family resilience and family stress theory. J Marriage Fam, 64:349–360.

Peters A , Liefbroer AC (1997) Beyond marital status: Partner history and well-being in old age. J Marriage Fam, 59:687-699.

Pıetsch UK (2002) Facilitating post-divorce transition using narrative therapy. J Couple Relatsh Ther, 1(1):65-81.

Pledge DS (1992) Marital separation/divorce: A review of individual responses to a major life stressor. J Divorce Remarriage, 17(3-4):151-182.

Plummer LP, Koch-Hattem A (1986) Family stress and adjustment to divorce. Family Relations, 35(4):523-529.

Rogers RG (1996) The effects of family composition, health, and social support linkages on mortality. J Health Soc Behav, 37:326-338.

Sakraıda TJ (2008) Stress and coping of midlife women in divorce transition. West J Nurs Res, 30(7):869-887.

Salts CJ (1979) Divorce process: Integration of theory. Journal of Divorce, 2(3):233-240.

Sayan Karahan A (2012) Boşanma sonrası yaşama uyum (Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi). Ankara, Hacettepe Üniversitesi.

Sbarra DA, Law RW, Portley RM (2011) Divorce and death: A meta-analysis and research agenda for clinical, social, and health psychology. Perspect Psychol Sci, 6(5):454-474.

Smith Barnet H (1990) Divorce stress and adjustment model: Locus of control and demographic predictors. Journal of Divorce, 13(3):93-110.

Sonat KA (2013) Ana babanın eğitimi devam eden ergin çocuğa karşı nafaka yükümlülüğü. MÜHF–HAD, 19(1):235-292.

Symoens S, Colman E, Bracke P (2014) Divorce, conflict, and mental health: How the quality of intimate relationships is linked to post‐divorce well‐being. J Appl Soc Psychol, 44(3):220-233.

Sweeper S, Halford K (2006) Assessing adult adjustment to relationship separation: The Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST). J Fam Psychol, 20(4):632-640.

Şanlı Yalın Ş (2017) Türk hukukunda anlaşmalı boşanma (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). İstanbul, İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi.

Şen B (2013) Boşanma süreci ve arabuluculuğu (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). Ankara, Hacettepe Üniversitesi.

Şener A, Terzioğlu G (2008) Bazı sosyo-ekonomik ve demografik değişkenler ile iletişimin eşler arası uyuma etkisinin araştırılması. Sosyal Politika Çalışmaları Dergisi, 13(13):7-20.

Thomas C, Ryan M (2008) Women’s perception of the divorce experience: A qualitative study. J Divorce Remarriage, 49(3–4):210–224.

Thuen F (2001) Psychiatric symptoms and perceived need for psychiatric care after divorce. J Divorce Remarriage, 34(1-2):61-76.

TÜİK (2012) İstatistik göstergeler 1923-2013. https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/Kitap.do?metod=KitapDetay&KT_ID=0&KITAP_ID=160 (Accessed 5.4.2021).

TÜİK (2019) Evlenme ve boşanma istatistikleri. https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33708 (Accessed 23.3.2020).

TÜİK (2020) Evlenme ve boşanma istatistikleri. https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=37211. (Accessed 03.04.2021).

Trovato F (1986) The Relationship Between Marital Dissolution and Suicide: The Canadian Case. J Marriage Fam, 48(2):341-348.

Tschann JM, Johnston JR, Wallerstein JS (1989) Resources, stressors, and attachment as predictors of adult adjustment after divorce: A longitudinal study. J Marriage Fam, 51(4):1033-1046.

Uhlenberg P, Myers MAP (1981) Divorce and the elderly. The Gerontologist, 21(3):276-282.

Veevers JE (1991) Traumas versus strens: a paradigm of positive versus negative divorce outcomes. J Divorce Remarriage, 15(1-2): 99-126.

Vukalovich D, Caltabiano N (2008) The effectiveness of a community group intervention program on adjustment to separation and divorce. J Divorce Remarriage, 48(3-4):145-168.

Wallerstein JS (1986) Women after divorce: Preliminary report from a ten-year follow-up. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 56:65-77.

Walsh F (2016) Applying a family resilience framework in training, practice, and research: Mastering the art of the possible. Family Process, 55(4):616-632.

Wang H, Amato PR (2000) Predictors of divorce adjustment: Stressors, resources, and definitions. J Marriage Fam, 62(3):655-668.

Wilder SE (2016) Predicting adjustment to divorce from social support and relational quality in multiple relationships. J Divorce Remarriage, 57(8):553-572.

Wiseman RS (1975) Crisis theory and the process of divorce. Soc Casework, 56(4):205-212.

Yárnoz-Yaben S (2017) Grief due to divorce: relationship with attachment style and effects on subjective well-being and co-parenting. Estudios de Psicología, 38(3):667-688.

Yárnoz S, Plazaola M, Etxeberrıa J (2008) Adaptation to divorce: an attachment-based intervention with long-term divorced parents. J Divorce Marriage, 49(3/4):291-307.

Yilmaz AE, Fişiloğlu H (2006) Psychometric properties of the Fisher Divorce Adjustment Scale in a Turkish divorced sample. J Divorce Remarriage, 4(1–2):149–169.

Yılmaz AE, Akyüz Z, Bintaş Zörer P, Erarslan İngeç Ö, Öksüzler Cabılar B, Tulum Akbulut S (2021) Derivation and psychometric evaluation of the Fisher Divorce Adjustment Scale-Short Form in a Turkish sample. J Divorce Remarriage, 62(1):41-65.

Zick CD, Smith KR (1991) Marital transitions, poverty, and gender differences in mortality. J Marriage Fam, 53(2):327-336.

Kaynak Göster

AMA Öksüzler Cabılar B. , Yılmaz A. E. Boşanma ve Boşanma Sonrası Uyum: Tanımlar, Modeller ve Uyumun Değerlendirilmesi. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar. 2022; 14(1): 1-11.