The Impacts of Behavioral Factors on Social Media Addiction

Social media has started to play a crucial role in people’s lives. However, excessive social media usage can bring with social media addiction that causes failure in different aspects of people’s lives such as academic life, business life, and even in private life. The main aim of the present study is to discover the impacts of specific behavioral factors, which are openness, loneliness, self-esteem, life satisfaction, creativity, stress, neuroticism, social intelligence, and narcissism, on social media addiction. A survey was conducted with 506 participants. The results of these analyses showed that while demographical factors which were gender, marital status, age, and education level affected social media addiction, income status and occupation had no influence on social media addiction. Moreover, positive relationships between openness and creativity, openness and self-esteem, self-esteem and life satisfaction, loneliness and neuroticism, and negative relationships between self-esteem and neuroticism, life satisfaction and stress were detected.

The Impacts of Behavioral Factors on Social Media Addiction

Social media has started to play a crucial role in people’s lives. However, excessive social media usage can bring with social media addiction that causes failure in different aspects of people’s lives such as academic life, business life, and even in private life. The main aim of the present study is to discover the impacts of specific behavioral factors, which are openness, loneliness, self-esteem, life satisfaction, creativity, stress, neuroticism, social intelligence, and narcissism, on social media addiction. A survey was conducted with 506 participants. The results of these analyses showed that while demographical factors which were gender, marital status, age, and education level affected social media addiction, income status and occupation had no influence on social media addiction. Moreover, positive relationships between openness and creativity, openness and self-esteem, self-esteem and life satisfaction, loneliness and neuroticism, and negative relationships between self-esteem and neuroticism, life satisfaction and stress were detected.

___

Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Ben-Artzi, E. (2003). Loneliness and Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 19(1), 71-80.

Amirazodi, F., & Amirazodi, M. (2011). Personality traits and self-esteem. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 713-716. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.296

Andreassen, C. S., Billieux, J., Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., Demetrovics, Z., Mazzoni, E., & Pallesen, S. (2016). The relationship between addictive uses of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours, 30(2), 252-262.

Appel, G., Grewal, L., Hadi, R., & Stephen, A. T. (2020). The future of social media in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48(1), 79-95.

Arslan, A. (2020). Üniversite öğrencilerinin dijital bağımlılık düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi [Determination of the digital addiction levels of students university according to various variables]. International e-Journal of Educational Studies (IEJES), 4(7), 27-41. DOI: 10.31458/iejes.600483.

Baron‐Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Wheelwright, S., Bullmore, E. T., Brammer, M. J., Simmons, A., & Williams, S. C. (1999). Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: An fMRI study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11(6), 1891-1898.

Bozoglan, B., Demirer, V., & Sahin, I. (2013). Loneliness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction as predictors of Internet addiction a cross-sectional study among Turkish university students. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(4), 313-319.

Buyukgungor, A. (2016). The Turkish adaptation of the pathological narcissism inventory (PNI). (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bahcesehir University, Istanbul.

Cao, F., & Su, L. (2007). Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: Prevalence and psychological features. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(3), 275–281.

Casale, S., & Fioravanti, G. (2018). Why narcissists are at risk for developing Facebook addiction: The need to be admired and the need to belong. Addictive Behaviors, 76, 312–318. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.038

Casale, S., Rugai, L., & Fioravanti, G. (2018). Exploring the role of positive metacognitions in explaining the association between the fear of missing out and social media addiction. Addictive Behaviours, 85, 83-87. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.05.020

Cizmeci, E. (2017). Disconnected, though satisfied: Phubbing behavior and relationship satisfaction. The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication, 7(2), 364-375.

Correa, T., Hinsley, A. W., & De Zuniga, H. G. (2010). Who interacts on the Web? The intersection of users’ personality and social media use. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), 247-253.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.

Dagli, A., & Baysal, N. (2016). Adaptation of the satisfaction with life scale into Turkish: The study of validity and reliability. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 15(59), 1250-1262.

Engelberg, E., & Sjoberg, L. (2004). Emotional intelligence, affect intensity, and social adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(3), 533-542.

Eskin, M., Harlak, H., Demirkıran, F. & Dereboy, C. (2013). The adaptation of the perceived stress scale into Turkish: A reliability and validity analysis. New Symposium Journal, 51(3), 132-140.

Genc, Y. E. (2015). Social media usage of college students and its impact on their buying behavior. (Unpublished master’s thesis). İzmir Kâtip Çelebi University, Izmir.

Hair, J. F. Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis, Seventh edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Hamid, N. A., Ishak, M. S., & Yazam, S. S. N. M. (2015). Facebook, YouTube and Instagram: Exploring their effects on undergraduate students’ personality traits. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 4(2), 138-165.

Hardie, E., & Tee, M. Y. (2007). Excessive Internet use: the role of personality, loneliness and social support networks in Internet addiction. Australian Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society, 5(1), 34-47.

Hawi, N. S., & Samaha, M. (2017). The relations among social media addiction, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in university students. Social Science Computer Review, 35(5), 576-586.

Hays, R. D., & DiMatteo, M. R. (1987). A short-form measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 51(1), 69-81.

Jaradat, M. I., & Atyeh, A. J. (2017). Do personality traits play a role in social media addiction? Key considerations for successful optimized model to avoid social networking sites addiction: a developing country perspective. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 17(8), 120-131.

Johansson, A., & Gotestam, G. (2004). Internet addiction characteristics of a questionnaire and prevalence in Norwegian youth 12–18 years. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45(3), 223–229.

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2, 102–138.

Karanci, A. N., Dirik, G., & Yorulmaz, O. (2007). Reliability and validity studies of Turkish translation of Eysenck personality questionnaire revised abbreviated. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 18(3), 254-261.

Khan, A. S., Rahman, A., & Qazi, L. T. (2016). The relationship between internet usage, socioeconomic status, subjective health and social status. Business & Economic Review, 8(SE), 67-82.

Khan, S. F., Ullah, F., Khan, M. K., Jan, A., Raza, S., & Shah, H. (2016). Effect of social media addiction on compliance in the patients of district Bannu, Khyber PakhtunKhwa. International Journal of Basic Medical Sciences and Pharmacy (IJBMSP), 6(2), 21-25.

Kirik, A. M., Arslan, A., Cetinkaya, A., & Gul, M. (2015). A quantitative research on the level of social media addiction among young people in Turkey. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport (IntJSCS), 3(3), 108-122. doi:10.14486/IntJSCS444

Kim, H. K., & Davis, K. E. (2009). Toward a comprehensive theory of problematic Internet use: Evaluating the role of self-esteem, anxiety, flow, and the self-rated importance of Internet activities. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 490–500.

King, L. A., McKee Walker, L., & Broyles, S. J. (1996). Creativity and the five-factor model. Journal of Research in Personality, 30(2), 189-203.

Kircaburun, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Instagram addiction and the big five of personality: The mediating role of self-liking. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(1), 158-170.

Kircaburun, K., Griffiths, M. D., Sahin, F., Bahtiyar, M., Atmaca, T., & Tosuntas, S. B. (2018). The mediating role of self/everyday creativity and depression on the relationship between creative personality traits and problematic social media use among emerging adults. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 7(1), 1-12.

Kwon, M., Kim, D. J., Cho, H., & Yang, S. (2013). The smartphone addiction scale: Development and validation of a short version for adolescents. PLOS ONE, 8(12), e83558. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083558

Lee, J., & Hong, I. B. (2016). Predicting positive user responses to social media advertising: The roles of emotional appeal, informativeness, and creativity. International Journal of Information Management, 36(3), 360-373.

Lee, J. N. T., Foo, K. H., Adams, A., Morgan, R., & Frewen, A. (2015). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, life satisfaction and purpose in Singapore. Journal of Tropical Psychology, 5(e2), 1-21. doi:10.1017/jtp.2015.2

Liu, D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2016). Social networking online and personality of self-worth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 64, 79-89.

Longstreet, P., & Brooks, S. (2017). Life satisfaction: A key to managing Internet & social media addiction. Technology in Society, 50, 73-77. doi: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2017.05.003

Montag, C., Bey, K., Sha, P., Li, M., Chen, Y. F., Liu, W. Y., ... & Reuter, M. (2015). Is it meaningful to distinguish between generalized and specific Internet addiction? Evidence from a cross‐cultural study from Germany, Sweden, Taiwan and China. Asia‐Pacific Psychiatry, 7(1), 20-26.

Mund, M., & Neyer, F. J. (2019). Loneliness effects on personality. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 43(2), 136-146. doi:10.1177/0165025418800224

Niemz, K., Griffiths, M., & Banyard, P. (2005). Prevalence of pathological Internet use among university students and correlations with self-esteem, the general health questionnaire (GHQ), and disinhibition. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(6), 562-570.

Ozer, O. (2020). Smartphone addiction and fear of missing out: does smartphone use matter for students’ academic performance?. Journal of Computer and Education Research, 8(15), 344- 355. DOI: 10.18009/jcer.696481

Priyadarshana, G. L. S., Yatigammana, M. R. K. N., & Sarathchandra, K. S. H. (2017). Factors determining the addiction of Sri Lankan software engineers towards social networks with special reference to Facebook. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management Journal, 5(1), 29-41.

Satici, S. A. (2019). Facebook addiction and subjective well-being: A study of the mediating role of shyness and loneliness. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17(1), 41-55.

Savci, M., & Aysan, F. (2017). Social-emotional model of Internet addiction. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(4), 349-358.

Sriwilai, K., & Charoensukmongkol, P. (2016). Face it, don’t Facebook it: Impacts of social media addiction on mindfulness, coping strategies and the consequence on emotional exhaustion. Stress and Health, 32(4), 427-434. doi:10.1002/smi.2637

Statista, (2018). Number of available applications in the Google Play store from December 2009 to December 2017. Statista, Retrieved May 14, 2018 from https://www.statista.com/statistics/266210/number-of-available-applications-in-the-google-play-store/

Stepanikova, I., Nie, N. H., & He, X. (2010). Time on the Internet at home, loneliness, and life satisfaction: Evidence from panel time-diary data. Computers in Human Behaviour, 26(3), 239-338.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics, Sixth edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.

Valenzuela, S., Park, N., & Kee, K. F. (2009). Is there social capital in a social network site? Facebook use and college students’ life satisfaction, trust, and participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 875-901.

Van den Ejinden, R., Lemmens, J. S., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). Social media disorder scale. Computers in Human Behaviour, 61, 478-487. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.038

Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Roberts, L. R., & Eckles, K. (2014). Social comparison, social media, and self-esteem. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3(4), 206-222.

Wang, Y., Niiya, M., Mark, G., Reich, S. M., & Warschauer, M. (2015). Coming of age (digitally): An ecological view of social media use among college students. Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (pp. 571-582). New York: ACM.

Whang, L. S., Lee, S., & Chang, G. (2003). Internet over-users’ psychological profiles: A behavior sampling analysis on Internet addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(2), 143–150. doi:10.1089/109493103321640338

Yen, J. Y., Ko, C. H., Yen, C. F., Wu, H. Y., & Yang, M. J. (2007). The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(1), 93-98.

Young, K. S., & Rodgers, R. C. (1998, April). Internet addiction: Personality traits associated with its development. In 69th annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (pp. 40-50). Bradford: University of Pittsburgh.

___

APA Savacı, G. Z. , Bayraktar, B. K. & Özen, Ç. (2021). The Impacts of Behavioral Factors on Social Media Addiction . Journal of Computer and Education Research , 9 (18) , 1059-1083 . DOI: 10.18009/jcer.1013726