The Effects of Sacral Massage and Music Therapy Applied to Primaparous Women in Labor on Labor Pain, Postpartum Comfort, and Posttraumatic Growth: A Randomized Controlled Trial

The Effects of Sacral Massage and Music Therapy Applied to Primaparous Women in Labor on Labor Pain, Postpartum Comfort, and Posttraumatic Growth: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Objective: In this study, the researchers investigated to the effects of sacral massage and music therapy applied to primiparous women in labor on labor pain, postpartum comfort, and posttraumatic growth. Material - Method: This randomized controlled study was conducted with 96 primiparous women admitted to the delivery room of a public hospital in a province in the south of Turkey. Data of the study was collected with “Visual Analog Scale (VAS)”, “Postpartum Comfort Questionnaire (PPCQ)” and “Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI)”. Results: It was determined that the PPCQ total mean scores were 127.0 (119.0-136.0) in the massage group, 121.0 (113.0-127.0) in the music group, 112.0 (106.0-115.0) in the control group, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (X2=34.159, p<0.001). It was determined that the PTGI total mean scores were 69.0 (62.0-75.0) in the massage group, 57.0 (49.0-72.0) in the music group, 55.0 (40.0-65.0) in the control group, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (X2=15.237, p<0.001). Conclusion: Sacral massage and music therapy applied to primiparous women in labor were found to be effective in reducing the pain levels of pregnant women and increasing postpartum comfort and posttraumatic growth levels.


  • 1.Susanti I, Anggraini D, Purwaninigsih A. Touch and massage on labor pain intensity during first stage of active phase. INJEC. 2020;5(1):76-81.
  • 2.Başgöl S, Koç E. Non-Pharmacological techniques in labor pain management. JoSHES. 2020;5(1):1–5.
  • 3.Boateng EA, Kumi LO, Diji AK-A. Nurses and midwives’ experiences of using non-pharmacological interventions for labour pain management: A qualitative study in Ghana. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2019; 19:168.
  • 4.Khoirunnisa FN, Indrianingrum I, Tristanti I. The effectiveness of circular hip massage and knee press massage toward intensity change of labor pain. KEMAS. 2019;15(1):44–52.
  • 5.Mwakawanga DL, Mselle LT, Chikwala VZ, Sirili N. Use of Non-Pharmacological methods in managing labour pain: experiences of nurse-midwives in two selected district hospitals in Eastern Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2022;22:376.
  • 6.Guo H, Que M, Shen J, et al. Effect of music therapy combined with free position delivery on labor pain and birth outcomes. Appl. Bionics Biomech. 2022;8963656,6 pages.
  • 7.Ingram MA, Brady S, Peacock AS. The barriers to offering non-pharmacological pain management as an initial option for laboring women: A Review of the Literature. Eur J Midwifery. 2022;6(37).
  • 8.Sapna M, Devi AM, Deepak M, Shalu M. Effectiveness of back massage in first stage labour pain among pregnant women. Eur J Mol Clin Med 2020;7(11):6644-52.
  • 9.Taghinejad H, Delpisheh A, Suhrabi Z. Comparison between massage and music therapies to relieve the severity of labor pain. Women’s Health. 2010;6(3):377–81.
  • 10.Nilsson L, Thorsell T, Wahn EH, Ekström A. Factors influencing positive birth experiences of first-time mothers. Nurs Res Prac. 2013;349124.
  • 11.Taheri M, Takian A, Taghizadeh Z, Jafari N, Sarafraz N. Creating a positive perception of childbirth experience: systematic review and meta-analysis of prenatal and intrapartum interventions. Reprod Health. 2018;15:73.
  • 12.Rawat V, Parashar AK, Sharma SK. Management of Labour Pain by Using Non-Pharmacological Measures. Int J Innov Educ Res. 2021;9(10):380–91.
  • 13.Ambarita HFR, Ulfah K. Effect of deep back massage method on intensity of pain in the first stage of labor. Journal Kesehatan Siliwangi. 2022;2(3):1041–48.
  • 14.Akköz Çevik S, Karaduman S. The effect of sacral massage on labor pain and anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2020;17(1):e12272.
  • 15.Türkmen H, Tuna Oran N. Massage and heat application on labor pain and comfort: A quasirandomized controlled experimental study. Explore. 2021;17(5):438-45.
  • 16.Gönenç İM, Alan Dikmen H. Effects of dance and music on pain and fear during childbirth. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2020;49(2):144–53.
  • 17.Liu Y-H, Chang M-Y, Chen C-H. Effects of music therapy on labour pain and anxiety in taiwanese first‐time mothers. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(7‐8):1065–72.
  • 18.Santiváñez-Acosta R, Tapia-López ELN, Santero M. Music therapy in pain and anxiety management during labor: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicina. 2020;56(10):526.
  • 19.Simavli S, Gumus I, Kaygusuz I, Yildirim M, Usluogullari B, Kafali H. Effect of music on labor pain relief, anxiety level and postpartum analgesic requirement: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2014;78(4):244–50.
  • 20.Simavli S, Kaygusuz I, Gumus I, Usluogulları B, Yildirim M, Kafali H. Effect of music therapy during vaginal delivery on postpartum pain relief and mental health. J Affect Disord. 2014;156:194–99.
  • 21.Joensuu J, Saarijärvi H, Rouhe H, et al. Maternal childbirth experience and pain relief methods: a retrospective 7-year cohort study of 85 488 parturients in Finland. BMJ Open. 2022;12:e061186.
  • 22.Boudou M, Teissèdre F, Walburg V, Chabrol H. Association between the intensity of childbirth pain and the intensity of postpartum blues. L’encéphale. 2007;33(5):805–10.
  • 23.Hakimi S, Hajizadeh K, Hasanzade R, Ranjbar M. A Systematic Review and meta-analysis of the effects of music therapy on postpartum anxiety and pain levels. J Caring Sci. 2021;10(4):230-237.
  • 24.Akin B, Yurteri Türkmen H, Yalnız Dilcen H, Sert E. The effect of labor dance on traumatic childbirth perception and comfort: a randomized controlled study. J Clin Nurs. 2022;31(5):909–17.
  • 25.Kirca AŞ, Gul DK. Effects of Acupressure and Shower Applied in the delivery on the intensity of labor pain and postpartum comfort. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 2022;273:98–104.
  • 26.Aksoy Derya Y, İbici Akça E, Kamalak H, Gökbulut N. The effect of parity, mode of birth and planned pregnancy on posttraumatic growth and comfort in puerperants. Mersin Univ Health Sci J. 2021;14(3):366-377.
  • 27.Turan SB, Aksoy Derya Y. The effects of midwifery care provided to primiparous mothers during the postpartum period on maternal attachment and post-traumatic growth. Midwifery. 2021;103140.
  • 28.Sawyer A, Ayers S. Post-traumatic growth in women after childbirth. Psychology and Health. 2009;24(4):457-71.
  • 29.Öztürk R, Yağız R, Er Güneri S. Investigation of The relationship between postpartum comfort and readiness for hospital discharge and affecting factors. Med J West Black Sea. 2021;5(2):272–80.
  • Access Date: 01.01.2022
  • 31.Price DD, McGrath PA, Rafii A, Buckingham B. The validation of visual analogue scales as ratio scale measures for chronic and experimental pain. Pain. 1983;17:45–56.
  • 32.Kolcaba KY. Holistic comfort: operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 1992;15(1):1-10.
  • 33.Kuğuoğlu S, Karabacak Ü. Turkish version of the general comfort questionaire. Florence Nightingale J Nurs. 2008;16(61):16–23.
  • 34.Karakaplan S, Yıldız H. A study on developing a postpartum comfort questionnaire. Maltepe University Journal of Nursing Science and Ar. 2010;3(1):55-65.
  • 35.Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG. The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. ISTSS 1996;9:455-71.
  • 36.Dirik G, Karancı AN. Variables related to posttraumatic growth in Turkish rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2008;15:193-203.
  • 37.Aydın R, Güven DY, Karahan N. Let You Listen: The effect of music therapy on coping with stress high risk pregnancies. Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal. 2019;2(1):19-24.
  • 38.Ak Sözer G, Altuntuğ K, Ege E. The Labor Pain and Massage. Akdeniz Med J. 2019;5(3):389-93.
  • 39.Kılıç A, Can Gürkan Ö. Evidence-Based Use of Music Therapy During Pregnancy, Birth and Postpartum. KTO Karatay Uni J Health Sci. 2021;2(1):47-60.
  • 40.Akın B, Karaca Saydam BA. New approach to reducing the perceived birth pain: Labor dance. Gümüşhane Univ J Health Sci. 2017. 6(3):218-24.
  • 41.Phumdoung S, Good M. Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain. Pain Manag Nurs. 2003;4(2):54-61.
  • 42.Kimber L, McNabb M, Mc Court C, Haines A, Brocklehurst P. Massage or music for pain relief in labour: a pilot randomised placebo controlled trial. Eur. J. Pain. 2008;12:961–69
  • 43.Birgili F. The Birth of Comfortable Women and The Effective Factors. Anatolian J Health Res. 2020;351-60.
  • 44.Güney E, Uçar T. Effects of deep tissue massage on pain and comfort after cesarean: A randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2021;43: 101320.
  • 45.Icke S, Genc R. Effect of foot massages on postpartum comfort and pain level of mothers after vaginal delivery: A randomized trial. Holistic nursing practice. 2021;35(3):140–9.
  • 46.Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG. Posttraumatic growth: conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychol Inq. 2004;15(1):1-18.
  • 47.Nishi D, Usuda K. Psychological Growth After Childbirth: An Exploratory Prospective Study. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2017;38(2):87-92.


APA Öztaş, H. G. , Gökbulut, N. & İbici Akça, E. (2023). The Effects of Sacral Massage and Music Therapy Applied to Primaparous Women in Labor on Labor Pain, Postpartum Comfort, and Posttraumatic Growth: A Randomized Controlled Trial . International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research , 4 (2) , 38-49 . DOI: 10.53811/ijtcmr.1313782
International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research
  • ISSN: 2717-7491
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda Yılda 3 Sayı
  • Yayıncı: Düzce Üniversitesi


Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Preparation of Centella asiatica (L). and Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) Plant Extracts and Development of Anti-Aging Herbal Cream Formulations

Elif AYDINLI, Bayram DEMİR, Haydar GÖKSU

The Effects of Sacral Massage and Music Therapy Applied to Primaparous Women in Labor on Labor Pain, Postpartum Comfort, and Posttraumatic Growth: A Randomized Controlled Trial


Combination Therapy of Major Autohemotherapy and Ozonated Bagging in a Case Diagnosed with Buerger's Disease (Thromboangiitis Obliterans)

Safa ÜNAL, Abdulkadir KAYA, Alper AYASLI, Bekir TUNCA

Acupuncture for Obesity

Duygu İlke YILDIRIM, Mehmet Ali ERYILMAZ

Evaluation of University Students' Attitudes towards Traditional and Complementary Medicine Practices: A Study at a University in Türkiye

Emine SARMAN, Şevval KOCABIYIK, Merve Betül KARACİF, Zahide Nur KARAKOYUNCU, Mustafa Samed UÇAR, Ahmet SAYAR, Çağrı YILMAZ

Biological Activity of Natural Formulation with Propolis, Lavender and Thyme Oil on Candida Species


Pimpinella species (Anise): Traditional use, Mineral, Nutrient and Chemical contents, Biological activities

Falah Saleh MOHAMMED, İmran UYSAL, Emre SEVİNDİK, Muhittin DOĞAN, Mustafa SEVİNDİK

Fever and the Ageing Immune system, A Review


The Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used Against Cardiovascular Diseases In Türkiye

Meltem GÜLEÇ, Zeynep Büşra ERARSLAN, Şükran KÜLTÜR