HANGİ FİRMALAR BELİRSİZLİK ALTINDA DAHA İYİ PERFORMANS GÖSTERİYOR: MİLES VE SNOW’UN STRATEJİ TİPOLOJİLERİNE YENİDEN BAKIŞ

Ekonomik krizler, firmalar için belirsiz bir ortam yaratan oldukça dönüştürücü olaylardır. 1930'ların Büyük Buhranından bu yana yaşanan ve en büyük finansal krizlerden biri olarak görülen 2008 Küresel Mali Krizi, 2008 ve 2009 yıllarında da Türkiye'deki kurumları etkilemiş, tüm sektörlerden firmalar için oldukça belirsiz bir ortam yaratmıştır. Çok benzer koşullar ile karşı karşıya olmalarına rağmen, kuruluşlar krize farklı tepkiler vermiş ve farklı sonuçlar elde etmişlerdir. Bu çalışmanın amacı metal ürünler ve makine endüstrisindeki kuruluşların stratejik davranışlarını (Miles ve Snow’un strateji tipolojisine dayalı olarak) incelemek ve kriz zamanındaki belirsizlik altında hangi stratejinin daha iyi bir şirket performansı (ROA) yarattığını araştırmaktır.

WHICH FIRMS OUTPERFORM THE OTHERS UNDER UNCERTAINTY: REVISITING MILES AND SNOW TYPOLOGY

Economic crisis are the most transformative events that create uncertain environment for the firms. 2008 Global Financial Crisis was one of the worst financial crises since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It has affected organizations in Turkey mostly in 2008 and 2009 and has caused a highly uncertain environment for firms from all industries. Although faced to very similar conditions, organizations responded to crisis differently and had different consequences. The aim of this study is to investigate the strategic behavior of organizations (based on Miles and Snow’s Typology) in metal products and machinery industry and find out which strategy outperform the others in terms of performance (ROA) under uncertainty during the crisis time.

___

  • Ansoff, H. Igor (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Bacot, L. Marie; Hartman, Sandra J.; Lundberg, Olof H. (1992). “Adaptive Strategies and Survival in An Environment Dominated By Economic Decline”. Journal of Applied Business Research, 9(1), 34-44.
  • Barney, Jay (1991). “The Resource-Based View of Strategy: Origins, Implications, and Prospects”. Journal of Management, 17, 97-211.
  • Bentley, Kathleen A.; Omer, Thomas C.; Sharp, Nathan Y. (2013). “Business Strategy, Financial Reporting Irregularities, and Audit Effort”. Contemporary Accounting Research, 30(2). 780-817.
  • Bigelow, Ronald; Peng, S. Chan (1992). “Managing in Difficult Times: Lessons from the Most Recent Recession”. Management Decision, 30(8). 34-42.
  • Blackmore, Karen; Nesbitt, Keith (2013). “Verifying the Miles and Snow Strategy Types in Australian Small-And Medium-Size Enterprises”. Australian Journal of Management, 38(1), 171-190.
  • Bohman, Håkan; Lindfors, Maj-Britt Johansson (1998). “Management for Change: On Strategic Change during Recession”. Journal of Business Research, 41(1), 57-60.
  • Carbonara, Gabriele; Rosa, Caiazza (2010). “How to Turn Crisis into Opportunity: Perception and Reaction to High Level of Uncertainty in Banking Industry”. Foresight, 12(4), 37-46.
  • Chattopadhyay, Prithviraj; Glick, William H.; Huber, George P. (2001). “Organizational Actions in Response to Threats and Opportunities”. The Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), 937-955.
  • Child, John (1972). “Organizational Structure, Environment and Performance: The Role of Strategic Choice”. Sociology, 6(1), 1-22.
  • DeSarbo, Wayne S.C.; Di Benedetto, Anthony; Song, Michael; Sinha, Indrajit (2005). “Revisiting the Miles and Snow Strategic Framework: Uncovering Interrelationships between Strategic Types, Capabilities, Environmental Uncertainty, and Firm Performance”. Strategic Management Journal, 26, 47-74.
  • Di Benedetto, C. Anthony; Song, Michael (2003). “The Relationship between Strategic Type and Firm Capabilities in Chinese Firms”. International Marketing Review, 20(5), 514-533.
  • Dugal, Sanjiv S.; Graham, K. Morbey (1995). “Revisiting Corporate R&D Spending During A Recession”. Research Technology Management, 38(4), 23-7.
  • Duncan, Robert B. (1972). “Characteristics of Organizational Environments and Perceived Environmental Uncertainty”. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(3), 313-27.
  • Fiss, Peer C. (2011). “Building Better Causal Theories: A Fuzzy Set Approach to Typologies İn Organization Research”. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 393–420.
  • Geroski, Paul A. Gregg, Paul (1997). “Coping with Recession”. UK Company Performance in Adversity. Cambridge: University Press.
  • Ghemawat, Pankaj (2009). “The Risk of not Investing in a Recession”. Sloan Management Review, 50(3), 31-38.
  • Gumusluoglu, Lale; Nuran, Acur (2016). “Fit among Business Strategy, Strategy Formality, and Dynamic Capability Development in New Product Development”. European Management Review, 13(2), 107-123.
  • Hambrick, Donald C. (1983). “Some Tests of the Effectiveness and Functional Attributes of Miles and Snow’s Strategic Types”. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 5–26.
  • Hambrick, Donald C. (2003). “On the Staying Power of Defenders, Analyzers, and Prospectors”. Academy of Management Executive, 17, 115–118.
  • Hannan, Michael T.; Freeman, John (1977). “The Population Ecology of Organizations”. American Journal of Sociology, 929-964.
  • Ittner, Christopher D.; Larcker, David, F.; Madhav, V. Rajan (1997). “The Choice of Performance Measures in Annual Bonus Contracts”. Accounting Review, 231-255.
  • Kabanoff, Boris; Shane, Brown (2008). “Knowledge Structures of Prospectors, Analyzers, and Defenders: Content, Structure, Stability, and Performance”. Strategic Management Journal, 29(2), 149-171.
  • Kamber, Thomas (2002). “The Brand Manager’s Dilemma: Understanding How Advertising Expenditures Affect Sales Growth during a Recession”. Journal of Brand Management, 10(2), 106-120.
  • Karabağ, Filiz Solmaz (2008). “Strateji ve Endüstrinin Firma Performansına Etkisi: Türkiye’nin Öncü Sanayi İşletmeleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma”, (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi), Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Adana.
  • Ketchen, David J.; Shook, Christopher L. (1996). “The Application of Cluster Analysis in Strategic Management Research: An Analysis and Critique”. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 441–485.
  • Latham, Scott (2009). “Contrasting Strategic Response to Economic Recession in Start Up Versus Established Software Firms”. Journal of Small Business Management, 47(2), 180-201.
  • Latham, Scott; Michael, Braun (2011). “Economic Recessions, Strategy, and Performance: A Synthesis”. Journal of Strategy and Management, 4(2), 96-115.
  • Miles, Raymond E.; Charles, C. Snow, (1978). “Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process”. [A. D. Meyer, collaborator; H. J. Coleman Jr., contributor]. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Michael, Steven C.; Robbins, D. Keith (1998). “Retrenchment among Small Manufacturing Firms during Recession”. Journal of Small Business Management, 36 (3), 35-45.
  • Miles, Raymond E.; Snow, Charles C.; Meyer, Alan D.; Coleman, Henry, J. Jr. (1978). “Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process”. Academy Of Management Review, 3(3), 546-562.
  • Miles, Raymond E.; Snow, Charles C. (1986). “Organizations: New Concepts for New Forms”. California Management Review, 28(3), 62-73.
  • Miller, Danny; Friesen, Peter, H. (1978). “Archetypes of Strategy Formulation”. Management Science, 24(11), 921-933.
  • Mintzberg, Henry (1979). The Structuring of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Mintzberg, Henry (1983). Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Olson, Eric M.; Slater, Stanley F.; Tomas, G.; Hult, M. (2005). “The Performance Implications of Fit among Business Strategy, Marketing Organization Structure, and Strategic Behavior”. Journal of Marketing, 69(3), 49-65.
  • Parnell, John A. (2010). "Strategic Clarity, Business Strategy and Performance". Journal of Strategy and Management, 3(4), 304 – 324.
  • Parnell, John A.; Lester, Donald L.; Long, Zhang; Köseoğlu, Mehmet Ali (2012). “How Environmental Uncertainty Affects the Link between Business Strategy and Performance in Smes: Evidence from China, Turkey, And the USA”. Management Decision, 50(4), 546-568.
  • Pfeffer, Jeffrey (1997). New Directions for Organization Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Pearce II, John A.; Steven, C. Michael (1997). “Marketing Strategies That Make Entrepreneurial Firms Recession-Resistant”. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(4), 301-314.
  • Porter, Michael E. (1980). Competitive Strategy. New York: Free Press.
  • Roberts, Keith (2003). “What Strategic Investments Should You Make During a Recession to Gain Competitive Advantage in the Recovery?”. Strategy & Leadership, 31(4), 31-39.
  • Saraç, Mehlika; Ertan, Yasemin; Yücel, Elif (2014). “How Do Business Strategies Predict Firm Performance? An Investigation on Borsa Istanbul Index”. Journal of Accounting & Finance, (61), 121-134.
  • Shama, Avraham (1993). “Marketing Strategies during Recession: A Comparison of Small and Large Firms”. Journal of Small Business Management, 31(3), 62-72.
  • Short, Jeremy C.; Palmer, Timothy B.; Ketchen, David, J. (2003). “Multilevel Influences on Firm Performance: Insights from the Resource-Based View and Strategic Groups Research”. Dansereau F, Yammarino FJ (Eds.), Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 2, JAI Press: Greenwich, CT; 155–187.
  • Short, Jeremy C.; Ketchen Jr., David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.; Hult, G. Thomas M. (2007). “Firm, Strategic Group, and Industry Influences on Performance”. Strategic Management Journal, 28(2), 147-167.
  • Smith, Ken G.; Guthrie, James P.; Chen, Ming-Jer (1986). “Miles and Snow's Typology of Strategy, Organizational Size and Organizational Performance”. Academy of Management proceedings (Vol. 1986, No. 1, 45-49), Academy of Management.
  • Snow, Charles C.; Hambrick, Donald C. (1980). “Measuring Organizational Strategies: Some Theoretical and Methodological Problems”. Academy of Management Review, 5, 527–538.
  • Song, Michael; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony; Nason, Robert W. (2007). “Capabilities and Financial Performance: The Moderating Effect of Strategic Type”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(1), 18-34.
  • Srinivasan, Raji; Arvind, Rangaswamy; Lilien, Gary L. (2005). “Turning Adversity into Advantage: Does Proactive Marketing during a Recession Pay Off?”. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 22(2), 109-125.
  • Sternad, Dietmar (2012). “Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia”. Managing Global Transitions, 10(3), 257-282.
  • Thomas, Anisya S.; Kannan, Ramaswamy (1996). “Matching Managers to Strategy: Further Tests of the Miles and Snow Typology”. British Journal of Management, 7(3), 247–261.
  • Tubbs, Michael (2007). “The Relationship between R&D and Company Performance”. Research Technology Management, 50(6), 23-30.
  • Vecchiato, Riccardo (2012). “Environmental Uncertainty, Foresight and Strategic Decision Making: An Integrated Study”. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 79, 436–447.
  • Vecchiato, Riccardo (1988). “Environmental Structure and Theories of Strategic Choice”. Journal of Management Studies, 25(6), 521-536.
  • Yalcin, Mehmet (2012). “Evaluation of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis’ Effects on Turkish Economy.Is it Tangential?”, 12.10.2013, Http://www.Academia.Edu/1564330/Effect_Of_2008_Global_Financial_Crisis_Over_Turkey
  • Zahra, Shaker A. (1987). “Corporate Strategic Types, Environmental Perceptions, Managerial Philosophies, and Goals: An Empirical Study”. Akron Business and Economic Review, 18(2), 64-77.
  • Zajac, Edward J.; Shortell, Stephen M. (1989). “Changing Generic Strategies: Likelihood, Direction, and Performance Implications”. Strategic Management Journal, 10(5), 413-430.
International Journal of Social Inquiry-Cover
  • ISSN: 1307-8364
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 2 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 2008
  • Yayıncı: BURSA ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ > SOSYAL BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ