Tarım ekosistemlerinde etkin bir toprak ve su yönetim planı geliştirmek için buğday saplarının yakılmasının toprak fiziksel ve hidrolojik özelliklerine etkisi araştırılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı tam-yakılmış, ortalamayakılmış ve yakılmamış toprak şartlarında toprak fiziksel ve hidrolojik özelliklerinin durumunu karşılaştırmaktır. Yakmanın devam eden etkileri 3-ha alanda her iki yanmış ve yanmamış şartlarda 2-yıl çalışılmıştır. Sonuçlar göstermektedir ki: Suya doygunluk iletkenlik değerleri azalan sıralamayla, tam-yanmış (0.81), orta-derecedeyanmış (0.36) ve yanmamış (0.23 cm h-1) önemli derecede artmıştır (P=0.000). Yakma şiddeti gözenek boşluk hacmini en fazla tam-yanmış ve en az da orta-derecede-yanmış muamelelerde azaltmıştır (P=0.000). Yanmamış muameleler sırsıyla tam-yanmış ve orta-derecede-yanmış muamelelere kıyasla %11,5 ve %9,7 daha fazla gözenek hacmi içermiştir. Bitki artıklarının yakımı gözenek büyüklük dağılımlılarını muamelelerin üç seviyesi arasında önemli derecede değiştirmiştir (P
The effect of wheat-stubble burning on soil physical and hydrological properties is under scrutiny to develop a sound soil and water management planning in agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare completely-burned, moderately-burned, and unburned soil conditions for responses of soil physical and hydrological properties. The persistence of fire-induced impacts were studied in 3 hectare land for both burned and unburned conditions for two years. Results showed that saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly increased in descending order 0.81, 0.36, and 0.23 cm h-1 for burned, moderately-burned, and unburned plots (P=0.000). Completely-burned treatments registered significantly higher Ksat (P=0.000) of 0.81 and 0.23 cmh-1, respectively from completely-burned and unburned treatments. Fire intensity significantly reduced the pore space volume, the highest for burned and the least for the moderately-burned treatments (P
Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103 (52): 19668-19672.
Badı`a D and Martı´ C (2003). Plant ash and heat intensity effects on chemical and physical properties of two contrasting soils. Arid Land Res Manage., 17:23–41.
Baldock JA and Smernik RJ (2002). Chemical composition and bioavailability of thermally altered Pinus resinosa (red pine) wood. Organic Geochemistry, 33: 1093-1109.
Bronick CJ and Lal R (2005). Soil structure and management: a review. Geoderma, 124: 3–22.
Certini G (2005). Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia, 143:1-10.
Cerit İ, Turkay MA, Saruhan H, Şen HM, Ülger AC, Kirişçi V, Korucu T and Say S (2002). İkinci Ürün Mısır Yetiştiriciliğinde Ekim Öncesi Buğday Anızının Yakılmasına Alternatif Bazı Toprak İşleme Metotlarının Belirlenmesi. Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Tarımsal Araştırmalar Genel Müdürlüğü, Proje Kod No: TAGEM/TA/00/01/06/08. (in Turkish)
Clinnick PF and Willatt ST (1981). Soil physical and chemical properties measured in an ashbed following windrow burning. Australian Forestry, 44: 185-189.
Day P (1965). Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, CA. Black (ed), American Society of Agronomy Inc.,
Madison, Wisconsin, Number 9 Agronomy Series. DeBano LF, Neary DG and Ffolliott PF (1998). Fire’s effects on ecosystems. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. Toronto, Canada. ISBN 0-471-16356-2.
Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri (DMI) (2016). İklim Verileri, Ankara: Başbakanlık Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü. http://www.mgm.gov.tr/iklim/iklimsiniflandirmalari.aspx?m=ANTAKYA (erişim tarihi: 05.10.2016).
DSI (1962). The Amik Project: The report of land planning and classification of the Amik Plain.
Ministry of Public Works of the Republic of Turkey, General Directorate of State Hydraulic works, Department of Survey and Planning, Ankara, Turkey, Project No: 1901, Survey report No. 17104.
Durgin PB and Vogelsang PJ (1984). Dispersion of kaolinite by water extracts of Douglas-fir ash. Can J Soil Sci., 64:439–443.
EIA (2008). Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2006. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C, USA.
Eiland B (1998). Mechanical harvesting in Florida. Elements of Sugarcane Production Short Course. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Fernandez, I, Cabaneiro A Carballas T (1997). Organic matter changes immediately after a wildfire inan Atlantic forest and comparison with laboratory soil heating. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29:1-11.
Gadde B, Bonnet S, Menke C and Garivait S (2009). Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines. Environmental Pollution, 157: 1554-1558.
Ghimire NP (2007). Impact of agricultural aggravation on ecology. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 8: 101-105.
Giovannini G, Lucchesi S and Giachetti M (1988). Effect of heating on some physical and chemical parameters related to soil aggregation and erodibility. Soil Science, 146: 225-261.
Haider MZ (2013). Determinants of rice residue burning in the field. Journal of Environmental Management, 128: 15-21.
Haverkamp R, Leij FJ, Fuentes C, Sciortino A and Ross PJ (2005). Soil water retention: I. Introduction of a shape index. Soil Science Society America Journal, 69: 1881–1890.
Hemwong S, Cadisch G, Toomsan B, Limpinuntana V, Vityakon P and Patanothai A (2008). Dynamics of residue decomposition and N2 fixation of rain legumes upon sugarcane residue retention as an alternative to burning. Soil and Tillage Research, 99: 84-97.
Imeson AC, Verstraten JM, van Mulligen EJ and Sevink J (1992). The effects of fire and water repellency on infiltration and runoff under Mediterranean type forest. Catena, 19: 345–361.
Kılıç Ş, Ağca N, Karanlık S, Şenol S, Aydın M, Yalçın M, Özelik İ, Evrendilek F, Uygur V, Doğan K, Aslan S and Çullu MA (2008). Amik Ovası’nın detaylı toprak etütleri, verimlilik çalışması ve arazi kullanım planlaması. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak Bölümü. Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Komisyonu, Proje No: DPT2002K120480. ( In Turkish)
Klute A and Dirksen C (1986). Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity: Laboratory methods. In Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1—Physical and Mineralogical Methods; American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 687–734.
Korkmaz H (2005). Amik Gölü’nün kurutulmasının yöre iklimine etkileri. T.C. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Fonu. Araştırma Projesi Sonuç Raporu. Proje No: 03 F 0701ç Antakya/Hatay. ( In Turkish)
Lal MM (2008). An overview to agricultural waste burning. Indian Journal of Air Pollution Control, 8 (1): 48-50.
Mackay SM, Long AC and Chambers RW (1985). Erosion pin estimates of soil movement after intensive logging and wildfire. In: R.J. Loughran (Editor), Drainage Basin Erosion and Sedimentation. University of Newcastle, UK.
Malhi SS and Kutcher HR (2007). Small grains stubble burning and tillage effects on soil organic C and N, and aggregation in northeastern Saskatchewan. Soil and Tillage Research, 94: 353–361.
Marcos E, Tarrega R and Luis-Calabuig E (2000). Comparative analysis of runoff and sediment yield with a rainfall simulator after experimental fire. Arid Soil Res Rehab., 14:293–307.
Mataix-Solera J and Doerr SH (2004). Hydrophobicity and aggregate stability in calcareous topsoils from fireaffected pine forests in southeastern Spain. Geoderma, 118:77–88.
McCarty JL, Korontzi S, Justice CO and Loboda T (2009). The spatial and temporal distribution of crop residue burning in the contiguous United States. Science of the Total Environment, 40: 5701-5712.
McLean EO (1982). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties-Agronomy Monograph no. 9 (2nd. Ed). ASA-ASSS.
McNabb DH, Gaweda F and Froehlich HA (1989). Infiltration, water repellency, and soil moisture content after broadcast burning a forest site in southwest Oregon. Journal of Soil Water Conservation, 44: 87-90.
Mermut AR, Luk SH, Romkens MJM and Poesen JWA (1997). Soil loss by splash and wash during rainfall from two loess soils. Geoderma, 75:203–214.
Moody JA, Kinner DA and Ubeda X (2009). Linking hydraulic properties of fire affected soils to infiltration and water repellency. Journal of Hydrology, 379: 291– 303.
Mualem Y (1976). A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Water Resource Research, 12: 513–522.
Nyman P, Sheridan G and Lane PNJ (2010). Synergistic effects of water repellency and macropore flow on the hydraulic conductivity of a burned forest soil, southeast Australia. Hydrological Processes, 24: 2871– 2887.
Oswald BP, Davenport D and Neuenschwander LF (1999). Effects of slash pile burning on the physical and chemical soil properties of Vassar soils. J Sustainable For., 8:75–86.
Philip JR (1969). Theory of infiltration. P.216-296. In V.T. Chow (ed.) Advences in hydroscience. Academic Press, New York.
Rab MA, Baker TG and King M (1994). Quantification of the degree and extent of soil disturbance on cleufelW coupes of mountain ash in the Victorian Central Highlands. VSP -Intern. Rep. No. 27. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Victoria, Australia, 22 pp.
Rab MA (1996). Soil physical and hydrological properties following logging and slash burning in the Eucalyptus regnans forest of southern Austalian Forest Ecology and Management, 84:159-176.
Robichaud PR (2000). Fire effects on infiltration rates after prescribed fire in Northern Rocky Mountain forests, USA. Journal of Hydrology, 231–232: 220– 229.
Schwertmann U and Taylor RM (1989). Iron oxides. In: J.B, Dixon and S.B. Weed (editors), Minerals in Soil Environments, Second edition. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 379-438.
Shakesby RA, Coelho de COA, Ferreira AD, Terry JP and Walsh RPD (1993). Wildfire impacts on soil erosion and hydrology in wet Mediterranean forest, Portugal. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 3: 95–110.
Šimůnek J, van Genuchten MT and Sejna M (2005). The hydrus-1d software package for simulating the onedimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media. Univ. Calif. - Riverside Res. Rep., 3: 1–240.
Tanant RF (1956). Effects of slash burning on some soils of the Douglas-fir region. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 20: 408-411.
Temel M (2012). Biçerdöver ve Anız Yangınları, Türkiye Ziraat Odası Yayınları, sayı:42.
Uygur V, Irvem A, Karanlik S and Akis R (2010).
Mapping of total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium in Amik Plain, Turkey. Environmental Earth Sciences, 59: 1129-1138.
van Genuchten MT (1980). A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44: 892–898.
van Genuchten MTh, Leij FJ and Yates SR (1991). The RETC code for quantifying the hydraulic functions of unsaturated soils, EPA/600/2-91/065, US Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK.
Vermeire LT, Mitchell RB, Fuhlendorf SD and Gillen R (2004). Patch burning effects on grazing distribution. Journal of Range Management, 57: 248–52.
Wang Y, Xu J, Shen J, Luo Y, Scheu S and Ke X (2010).Tillage, residue burning and crop rotation alter soil fungal community and water-stable aggregation in arable fields. Soil Tillage and Research, 107: 71-79.
Webb J, Hutchings N and Amon B (2009). Field Burning of Agricultural Wastes. European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen, pp. 1-14. EMEP/EEA Emission. Inventory Guidebook.
Wright H and Bailey AW (1982). Fire ecology, United States and southern Canada. John Wiley and Sons. 501 p. New York.
Yates DN, Warner TT and Leavesley GH (2000).
Prediction of a flash flood in complex terrain. Part II: a comparison of flood discharge simulations using rainfall input from radar, a dynamic model, and an automated algorithmic system. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 39: 815–825.
Yılmaz G, Bilgili AV, Toprak D, Almaca A and Mermut AR (2014). Anız yakmanın karbondioksit salınımına etkisi. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi, 18(1): 25-31.
Zhang H, Ye X, Cheng T, Chen J, Yang X, Wang L and Zhang R (2008). A laboratory study of agricultural crop residue combustion in China: emission factors and emission inventory. Atmospheric Environment, 42: 8432-8441.