Developing Chinese character knowledge is often labor intensive and time consuming. Therefore, there is often an imbalance between character instruction and training in other language skills due to how much instructional time is occupied by learning characters. A few teaching approaches are frequently used in the classroom to accommodate this problem. This pilot study intended to compare these approaches in an experimental setting to investigate the effectiveness of them on learners’ oral and character recognition performances. This study involved nine first-year learners of Chinese at a university in the United States. Data collection of this study included the results of character quizzes and oral assessment. The participants and their teachers were also given a survey regarding their perceptions towards each of the instructional approaches. The findings illustrated that some of the instructional approaches helped develop the participants’ oral skills more rapidly than the rest, while some approaches were more effective in aiding the development of character recognition
Allen, J. R. (2008). Why learning to write Chinese is a waste of time: A modest proposal. Foreign Language Annals, 41(2), 237-251. http://doi.org/dv8m5d
Bi, Y., Han, Z., & Zhang, Y. (2009). Reading does not depend on writing, even in Chinese. Neuropsychologia, 47(4), 1193-1199. http://doi.org/dp742w
Chung, K. K. (2007). Presentation factors in the learning of Chinese characters: The order and position of Hanyu pinyin and English translations. Educational Psychology, 27(1), 1-20. http://doi.org/df28sg
Dew, J. E. (1994). Back to basics: Let’s not lose sight of what’s really important. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 29(2), 31-46. Retrieved from http://journal.cltaus.org
Everson, M. E. (1988). Speed and comprehension in reading Chinese: Romanization vs. characters revisited. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 23(2), 1-15. Retrieved from http://journal.clta-us.org
Everson, M. E. (1998). Word recognition among learners of Chinese as a foreign language: Investigating the relationship between naming and knowing. The Modern Language Journal, 82(2), 194-204. Retrieved from http://www.mlajournals.org
Everson, M. E. (2009) Literacy development in Chinese as a foreign language. In M. E.
Everson, & Y. Xiao. Teaching Chinese as a foreign language (pp. 97-111). Boston, MA: Cheng & Tsui Company.
Fan, K. Y., Gao, J. Y., & Ao, X. P. (1984). Pronunciation principles of the Chinese character and alphabetic writing scripts. Chinese Character Reform, 3, 23-27.
Feldman, L. B., & Siok, W. W. (1999). Semantic radicals in phonetic compounds: Implications FoR visual character recognition in Chinese. In J. Wang, A. W. Inhoff, & H.-C. Chen (Eds.), Reading Chinese script: A cognitive analysis (pp. 19-35). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Harrington, M., & Jiang, W. (2013). Focus on the Forms: Form recognition practice in Chinese vocabulary learning. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 36(2), 132-145. Retrieved from http://www.nla.gov.au/openpublish/index.php/aral/article/viewFile/3070/3612
Hayes, E. B. (1988). Encoding strategies used by native and non-native readers of Chinese Mandarin. The Modern Language Journal, 72(2), 188-195. http://doi.org/bp8nm2
Guan, C. Q., Liu, Y., Chan, D. H. L., Ye, F., & Perfetti, C. A. (2011). Writing strengthens orthography and alphabetic-coding strengthens phonology in learning to read Chinese. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 509-522. http://doi.org/bnf9fr
Lee, C. H., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Effectiveness of different pinyin presentation formats in learning Chinese characters: A cognitive load perspective. Language Learning, 61(4), 1099- 1118. http://doi.org/brxx3g
Liu, Y., Wang, M., & Perfetti, C. A. (2007). Threshold-style processing of Chinese characters for adult second-language learners. Memory & Cognition, 35(3), 471-480. http://doi.org/bt4p64
Packard, J. L. (1990). Effects of time lag in the introduction of characters into the Chinese language curriculum. The Modern Language Journal, 74(2), 167-175. http://doi.org/fnr5d2
Perfetti, A. C., Ying, L. & Tan, L. H. (2005). The lexical constituency model: Some implications of research on Chinese FoR general theories of reading. Psychological Review, 112(1), 43-59. http://doi.org/c8m93v
Shen, H. H., & Ke, C. (2007). Radical awareness and word acquisition among nonnative learners of Chinese. The Modern Language Journal, 91(1), 97-111. http://doi.org/bkz2zf
Tan, L. H., Spinks, J. A., Eden, G. F., Perfetti, C. A., & Siok, W. T. (2005). Reading depends on writing, in Chinese. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(24), 8781-8785. http://doi.org/fjdt2s
Tsai, C. H., Kuo, C. H., Horng, W. B., & Chen, C. W. (2012). Effects on learning logographic character formation in computer-assisted Handwriting Instruction. Language Learning & Technology, 16(1), 110-130. Retrieved from http://llt.msu.edu/issues/february2012/tsaietal.pdf
Tse, S. K., Marton, F., Ki, W. W., & Loh, E. K. Y. (2007). An integrative perceptual approach for teaching Chinese characters. Instructional Science, 35(5), 375-406. http://doi.org/d5bc7p
Tso, R. V. Y., Au, T. K. F., & Hsiao, J. H. W. (2012). Writing facilitates learning to read in Chinese through reduction of holistic processing: A developmental study. Journal of Vision, 12(9), 530-530. http://doi.org/xzh
Xu, P., & Jen, T. (2004). Penless Chinese language learning: A computer-assisted approach. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association, 40(2), 25-42. Retrieved from http://journal.clta-us.org/
Wang, H., Chang, B. R., Li, Y. S., Lin, L. H., Liu, J., & Sun, Y. L. (1986). Xiandai hanyu pinlu cidian [Dictionary of the frequency of vocabulary in modern Chinese].
Wang, J., & Leland, C. H. (2011). Beginning students’ perceptions of effective activities for Chinese character recognition. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23(2), 208-224. Retrieved from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/October2011/articles/wang.pdf
Ye, L. (2011). Teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language in the United States: To delay or not to delay the character introduction. Applied Linguistics and English as a Second Language Dissertations. Paper 21. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/alesl_diss/21
Ye, L. (2013). Shall we delay teaching characters in teaching Chinese as a foreign language? Foreign Language Annals, 46(4), 610-627. http://doi.org/xzj
Yu, H., Gong, L., Qiu, Y., & Zhou, X. (2011). Seeing Chinese characters in action: An fMRI study of the perception of writing sequences. Brain and Language, 119(2), 60-67. http://doi.org/cjnbpv