Çocuğun Mizacı ve Problem Davranışları: Ebeveyn Uygulamalarının Aracı Rolü

Bu çalışmada ebeveynlik uygulamalarının, çocukların mizacıyla çocukların içselleşmiş ve dışsallaştırılmış davranış problemleri arasındaki ilişkiye aracılık edip etmediği incelenmiştir. Araştırmaya 6-13 yaş arası çocukları olan 600 ebeveyn katılmıştır. Çocukların yaş ortalaması 8.98’dir (SS = 1.82). Örneklem grubunun % 44'ü erkek, % 56'sı kadındır.  Veriler, Anababalık Uygulamaları Ölçeği, Çocuklar için Kısa Mizaç Ölçeği ve Çocuk ve Gençler için Davranış Değerlendirme Ölçeği kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizi için Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi kullanılmıştır. Analizler sonucunda, çocukların mizaç eğilimleri ile çocukların hem içselleştirilmiş davranış problemleri hem de dışsallaştırılmış davranış problemleri için ana babalık uygulamalarının aracılık etkisine sahip olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Yapılan YEM ile ulaşılan model çocuklarda içselleştirilmiş davranış problemlerinin %42’sini, dışsallaştırılmış davranış problemlerinin %49’unu açıklamıştır. Araştırma bulgularından yola çıkarak, çocukların sahip olduğu mizaç eğilimlerinin ana babalık uygulamalarını etkilediği, ana babalık uygulamalarının da çocukların davranış problemlerini arttırdığı ya da azalttığı söylenebilir.

Children’s Temperament and Problem Behaviors: Mediating Role of Parenting Practice

The main aim of this study is to examine whether parenting practices mediated the relationship between children’s temperament and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. The research has been conducted on 600 parents with school-age children between the ages of 6-13 years old. The mean age of children was 8.98 (SD=1.82).  Of the subjects 44% were male, 56% were female. Data was collected with Parenting Practices Scale and Short Temperament Scale for Children. We also found the association between children’s temperament and internalizing behavior was mediated by parenting practices and the association between children’s temperament and externalizing behavior was also mediated by parenting practices. The model accounted for 42% of the variance in internalizing behavior and 49% of the variance in externalizing behavior. From the findings of this research, it can be said that the temperament disposition of children affected the parenting practices; parenting practices led to the decrease or increase of the children's behavior problems. Results reveal importance of assessment of children’s temperament in interventions.

Kaynakça

Altan, Ö. (2006). The effects of maternal socialization and temperament on children’s emotion regulation. (Unpublished Master Thesis), Koç University, İstanbul.Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.

Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for Child Behavior Checklist 4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.

Burke, J. D., Pardini, D.A., & Loeber, R. (2008). Reciprocal relationships between parenting behavior and disruptive psycho-pathology from childhood through adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 679–692.

Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Calkins, S. D. (2012). Temperament and its impact on child development: Comments on Rothbart, Kagan, Eisenberg, and Schermerhorn and Bates. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development, 1-6. http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/documents/CalkinsANGxp2.pdf (Erişim tarihi:02.04.2018)

Cameron, J. R., Rice, D. C., Hansen, R., & Rosen, D. (1994). Developing temperament guidance programs within pediatric practice. W. B. Carey & S. C. McDevitt (Der.), Prevention and early intervention: Individual differences as risk factors for the mental health of children içinde (ss. 226-234). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R. O., Moffitt, T, E., & Silva, P. A. (1995). Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age 3 to age 15. Child Development, 66, 55-68.

Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1991). Temperament and the Concept of Goodness of Fit. J. Strelau & A. Angleitner (Der.), Explorations in Temperament: International Perspectives on Theory and Measurement içinde (ss. 15-28). New York: Springer Science+Business Media,

Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., & Bornstein, M. H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55, 218–232.Erol, N., Arslan, B. L. & Akçakın, M (1995). The adaptation and standardization of the Child Behavior Checklist among 6-18 year-old Turkish children. J Sergeant (Eds.), Eunethydis, European Approaches to Hyperkinetic Disorder içinde (ss. 97-113). Zürih, Fotoratar.

Harvey, E., Danforth, J. S., Ulaszek, W. R., & Eberhardt, T. L. (2001). Validity of the parenting scale for parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39(6), 731-743.

Irvine, A. B., Biglan, A., Smolkowski, K., & Ary, D. V. (1999). The value of the Parenting Scale for measuring the discipline practices of parents of middle school children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37(2), 127-142.

Kahraman, H., Yılmaz Irmak, T. ve Başokçu, T. O. (2017). Ana Babalık Uygulamaları Ölçeği (ABUÖ): Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması (İlköğretim Formu). Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, 17(3), 745-769.

Kiff, C. J., Lengua, L. J., & Zalewski, M. (2011). Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child temperament. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(3), 251-301.Lengua, L. J., Wolchik, S. A., Sandler, I. N., & West, S. G. (2000). The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 232–244.

Letcher, P., Toumbourou, J., Sanson, A., Prior, M., Smart, D., & Oberklaid, F. (2004). Parenting style as a moderator of the effect of temperament on adolescent externalising and internalising behaviour problems. Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 19, 5–34.

Loginova, S. V., & Slobodskaya, H. R. (2017). The mediating role of parenting in the relation between personality and externalizing problems in Russian children. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 275-280.

Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Sessa, F. M., Avenevoli, S., & Essex, M. J. (2002). Temperamental vulnerability and negative parenting as interacting predictors of child adjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 461–471.

McClowry, S. B. (1995). The development of the school-age temperament inventory. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 41, 233–252.

McClowry, S.G., & Gatehouse, P. A (2002). Pilot study conducted to plan a temperament-based parenting program for inner-city families. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 15, 97–104.

McClowry, S. B., Rodriguez, E. T., & Koslowitz, R. (2008). Temperament-based ıntervention: Re-examining goodness of fit. European Journal of Developmental Science 2(1-2), 120–135.

Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M. C., Stams, G.J., Hermanns, J. M., Peetsma, T. T., & Van Den Wıttenboer, G. L. (2008). Parenting Style as a Mediator Between Children’s Negative Emotionality and Problematic Behavior in Early Childhood, The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 169(3), 209–226.

Paterson, G., & Sanson, A. (1999). The association of behavioural adjustment to temperament, parenting and family characteristics among 5-year-old children. Social Development, 8, 293–309.

Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (1989). The Australian Temperament Project. G. A. Kohnstamm, J. E. Bates & M. K. Rothbart (Der.), Temperament in childhood içinde (ss. 537–556). New York: Wiley.

Prinzie, P., Onghena, P., Hellinckx, W., Grietens, H., Ghesquiere, P., & Colpin, H. (2005). Direct and indirect relationships between parental personality and externalising behaviour: The role of negative parenting. Psychologica Belgica, 45, 123–146

Raya, A. F., Ruiz-Olivares, R., Pino, J., & Herruzo, J. (2013). Parenting style and parenting practices in disabled children and its relationship with academic competence and behaviour problems. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 89, 702-709.

Rothbart, M. K. (2012). Early Temperament and Psychosocial Development. In M. K. Rothbart, (Der.), Temperament içinde, (ss. 7-11). http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/sites/default/files/dossiers-complets/en/temperament.pdf, (Erişim tarihi:02.04.2018)

Rothbart, M., & Ahadi, S. (1994). Temperament and the development of personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 55-66.

Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Temperament. W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Der.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol 3. Social, emotional, and personality development içinde, (ss. 105–176). New York: Wiley.

Rothbaum, F. & Weisz, J. R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 55–74.

Sanson, A., Hemphill, S. A., & Smart, D. (2004). Connections between temperament and social development: A review. Social Development, 13, 142–170.

Puntam, S. P., Sanson, A., & Rothbart, M. K. (2002). Child Temperament and Parenting. M. H. Bornstein (Der.), Handbook of Parenting. Volume 1: Children and Parenting içinde (ss. 255-278). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sanson, A., Hemphill, S. A., Yagmurlu, B., & McClowry, S. (2011). Temperament and Social Development. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development: Second Edition iinde (ss. 227-245). Wiley-Blackwell.

Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2013). Theories of Personality (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Darling, N., Mounts, N. S., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1994). Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 65, 754-770.

Stormshak, E. A., Bierman, K. L., McMahon, R. J., & Lengua, L. J. (2000). Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29(1), 17-29.

Thomas, A., Chess, S., Birch, H. G., Hertzig, M. E., & Korn, S. (1963). Behavioural individuality in early childhood. New York: New York University Press.

Quinton, D., Pickles, A., Maughan, B., & Rutter, M. (1993). Partners, peers, and pathways: Assortative pairing and continuities in conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 763-783.

Yağmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2004). The relations between parenting stress, goals and practices, and child temperament: Evidence from Australia [Abstract]. International Journal of Psychology. Abstracts of the International Congress of Psychology, China, 39, 138.

Kaynak Göster

APA Kahraman, H , Yılmaz Irmak, T . (2019). Çocuğun Mizacı ve Problem Davranışları: Ebeveyn Uygulamalarının Aracı Rolü . Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , (48) , 15-29 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/deubefd/issue/51015/510067