Objective: Patients presenting with various complaints to the hematology polyclinic may initially be diagnosed with an atypical lymphoproliferation in bone marrow or lymph node biopsy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hematological disease, immunodeficiency syndrome, or other diseases were diagnosed during follow-up of patients with an initial diagnosis of atypical lymphoproliferation in bone marrow or in lymph node biopsy. Materials and Methods: Adult (≥18 years) patients who were admitted to the Hacettepe University Hospital, for various symptoms between 2002 and 2018 were searched for in our hematology department electronical database. Results: A total of 52 patients were found with atypical lymphoproliferation in lymph node or bone marrow biopsy. The patients had been followed for a median of 9.2 months (0.03-86.2). Hematological neoplasia developed in 32 (61.6%) of the 52 patients and primary immunodeficiency was detected in 6 (11.5%) of the 52 patients. Twenty-six patients (50%) were diagnosed Non-Hodgkin lymphoma during follow up, 1 patient (1%) was diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 5 patients (9.6%) were diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma and 6 patients (11.5%) were diagnosed primary immunodeficiency. Median time was 2.3 months (0.2-25 months) between atypical lymphoproliferation report in bone marrow or lymph node biopsy and the diagnosis of patients. Conclusion: In conclusion, patients who have atypical lymphoproliferation in the lymph node or bone marrow biopsy should be followed up in the hematology outpatient clinic. Because, during follow-up, diseases such as hematological neoplasia or immunodeficiency can be diagnosed in patients with atypical lymphoproliferation.
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