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Determination of conceptual problems which may cause alternative conceptions in science and technology textbooks is significant to increase in success of pupils and teachers. It is a vital issue to arrange books in a way removing or decreasing these faults in order to improve a better education via textbooks. This study aims to determine conceptual problems which may cause alternative conceptions in biology topics in science and technology textbooks of primary schools. In this study, the units of each textbook were analyzed page by page according to document examination method and conceptual problems were determined. The founded conceptual problems have been classified such as; misidentifications, overgeneralizations, oversimplifications, obsolete concepts and terms, under generalizations. The finding of research results have been shown that various conceptual problems which may cause alternative conceptions in pupils' textbooks about biology topics. The obtained results of research were compared with related literature and in the light of findings some recommendations were developed for future planning and development activities pupils' textbooks.