Clinical Faculty Members in the Schools of Education in the United States: An Overview

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri yükseköğretim sisteminde “klinik öğretim üyeliği”, farklı alan ve bölümlerde farklı akademik personel pozisyonlarını tanımlama amacı ile kullanıla gelmiştir. Bu çeşitliliğe rağmen, temelde, klinik öğretim üyeliği, teori ve pratik arasındaki boşluğu doldurmak ve profesyonel okullar veya meslek eğitimi veren fakülteler diye tanımladığımız yükseköğretim kurumlarına pratik ve tecrübe bilgisi getirmesi için oluşturulmuş bir pozisyondur. Bu çalışma Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’ndeki eğitim fakültelerinde klinik öğretim üyeliği pozisyonunu, pozisyonun karakteristik özelliklerini, görev tanımını ve bu pozisyondaki öğretim üyelerinin sorunlarını tartışmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada ayrıca, eğitim fakültelerindeki klinik öğretim üyeliğinin tıp ve hukuk fakültelerindeki klinik öğretim üyeliği pozisyonları ile karşılaştırması yapılarak pozisyonun eğitim fakültesine özgü sorunlarının ortaya çıkarılması hedeflenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın başlıca tavsiyelerinden biri pozisyonun geleceği için, klinik öğretim üyelerinin diğer akademik personelle aynı atanma ve yükselme şart ve koşullarına tabi olmaya zorlanmaları yerine - ki kendilerine uymayan bir mekanizmadır - eğitim fakültelerinde de diğer mesleki okullarda olduğu gibi pozisyona özgü kariyer ve akademik yükselme mekanizması kurulmasıdır. Bu sayede, hem klinik öğretim üyelerinin iş güvencesi, maaş ve yükselme ile ilgili karşılaştığı sorunlar büyük ölçüde çözüme kavuşacak hem de klinik olmayan öğretim üyelerinin kalite ile ilgili kaygıları giderilmiş olacaktır.

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Eğitim Fakültelerinde Klinik Öğretim Üyeleri: Genel Bir Bakış

In the United States of America, the term “clinical faculty” has been used to define different positions academic personnel hold in various fields and job settings. Although it possesses different meanings, the main argument is that the clinical faculty position in general, is designated to bring practical knowledge and expertise to the professional schools by filling the gap between theory and practice. Schools of education, as in other professional schools, also offer this type of clinical faculty position to provide practical knowledge to their students who will need it in their future lives as teachers, administrators and practitioners. This study aims to discuss the future of clinical faculty in schools of education through analyzing the position, in terms of job specifications, effectiveness, job requirements, personnel rights and the issues this category of faculty encounters in a cross comparative way across the fields of education, law and medicine. One of the main recommendations of the paper is that the future of clinical faculty should be secured through creating a clinical – tenure - track faculty positions in schools of education as in other professional schools instead of keeping them under the general appointment and promotion rules and regulations with the other faculty members. In this way, both the clinical faculty members’ problems related to job security, compensation, and promotion and non-clinical faculty members’ concerns related to quality will be resolved.

Kaynakça

Adamson, B. L., Pang, C., Colbert, B., Hessler, K., Kruse, K., Kuehn, R., McNeal, M.H. & Santacroce, D. (2012). Clinical faculty in the legal academy: Hiring, promotion and retention. Journal of Legal Education, 62(1), 115-161.

Altbach, P. (2005). Patterns in higher education development. In P. G. Altbach, & R. O. Gumport (Eds.), American higher education in the twenty-first century: Social, political and economic challenges. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

Anderson, A. &Wyliett, N. (2008). Beyond the ADA: How clinics can assist law students with “nonvisible” disabilities to bridge the accommodations gap between classroom and practice. Clinical Law Review, 15(1), 1-53.

Baldwin, R. G., & Chronister, J. L. (2002). What happened to the tenure track? In R. P. Chait (Ed.), The questions of tenure (pp. 125–159). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Barzansky, B. & Kenagy, G. (2010). The full-time clinical faculty: What goes around, comes around. Academic Medicine, 85(2), 260-265.

Bassett, R. M. (2006). The WTO and the university: Globalization, GATS, and American higher education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Blackburn, R., Bieber, J., Lawrence, J., & Trautvetter, L. (1991). Faculty at work: Focus on research, scholarship, and service. Research in Higher Education, 32(4), 385-413.

Bland, C. J., Center, B. A., Finstad, D. A., Risbey, K. R., & Staples, J. (2006). The impact of appointment type on the productivity and commitment of full-time faculty in research and doctoral institutions. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(1), 89-123.

Brewer, A., Gates, S. M., & Goldman, C. (2004). In pursuit of prestige: Strategy and competition in U.S. higher education. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press.

Browne-Ferrigno, T. & Muth, R. (2004). Leadership mentoring in clinical practice: Role socialization, professional development, and capacity building. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40(4), 468-494.

Bullough Jr, R. V., Hobbs, S. F., Kauchak, D. P., Crow, N. A., & Stokes, D. (1997). Long-term PDS development in research universities and the clinicalization of teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 48(2), 85-95.

Burstein, N., Kretschmer, D., Smith, C., & Gudoski, P. (1999). Redesigning teacher education as a shared responsibility of schools and universities. Journal of Teacher Education, 50(2), 106-118.

Clark, D. C. & Clark, S. N. (1996). Better preparation of educational leaders. Educational Researcher, 25(8), 18-20.

Cornbleth, C., & Ellsworth, J. (1994). Clinical faculty in teacher education: Roles, relationships and careers. In K. R. Howey, & N. L. Zimpher (Eds.), Informing faculty development for teacher educators (pp. 213-247). Norwook, NJ: Ablex.

Ehrenberg, R. G. & Zhang, L. (2005).The changing nature of faculty environment. In R. L. Clark and J. Ma (Eds.), Recruitment, retention, and retirement in higher education: building and managing the faculty of future (pp.32-52). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Fretwell, E. K. Jr. (1967). Discussant. In W.R. Hazard (Ed.), The clinical professorship in teacher education. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Hackmann, D. (2007). Roles and responsibilities of clinical faculty in selected educational leadership programs. Planning and Changing, 38, 17-34.

Hearn, J. C., & Anderson, M. S. (2001). Clinical faculty in schools of education. In W. G. Tierney (Ed.), Faculty work in schools of education: Rethinking roles and rewards for the twenty-first century (pp. 125-149). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Indiana University School of Education IUPUI, Long-term contract and promotion criteria for clinical faculty. Retrieved on November 4, 2009. Retrieved from http://education.indiana. edu/Portals/28/IUPUI%20Long%20Term%20Contract%20 and%20Promotion%20Criteria%20for%20Clinical%20Faculty. pdf

Jones, R. F. (1987). Clinician-educator faculty tracks in US Medical Schools. Journal of Medical Education, 62(5), 444-447.

Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (1980). Improving inservice training: The messages of research. Educational Leadership, 37(5), 379-385.

Kirby, S. N., McCombs, J. S., Barney, H., & Naftel, S. (2006). Reforming Teacher Education: Something Old, Something New. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

Kowalski, T. (2009). Need to address evidence-based practice in educational administration. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(3), 351-374.

Losee, S. (1993). Toward quality field experiences: The role of clinical faculty. Paper presented at the National Conference on Creating the Quality School, Oklahoma City, OK, ERIC Journal Number (ED364498).

Peterson, M.W., & Dill, D. D. (1997). Understanding the competitive environment of the postsecondary knowledge industry. In W. P. Marvin, D. D. Dill, & L. Mets, (Eds.), Planning and management for a changing environment (pp. 230-245). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

May, D.C. (2005). The nature of school of education faculty work and materials for promotion and tenure at a major research university. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.

McPherson, M. S. & Schapiro, M. O. (1999). Tenure issues in higher education. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13(1), 85-98.

NEA (n.d.). The truth about tenure in higher education. Retrieved Nov. 14, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/ home/33067.htm

Pinar, W. F. (1989). A reconceptualization of teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 40(1), 9-12.

Shulman, L. S. (1998). Theory, practice, and the education of professionals. The Elementary School Journal, 98(5), 511-526.

The Holmes Partnership. (n.d.a). Origins of the Holmes Partnership (1987-1997), retrieved on October 19, 2009 from http://www. holmespartnership.org/about/history.cfm

Kaynak Göster