An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform

Lower-middle Devonian iron-bearing successions were studied along 2 measured stratigraphic sections in the Çamdağ region of NW Anatolia. Ironstones in the upper part of the Fındıklı Formation in Kabalakdere are characterized by alternating red and green mudstones and sandstones at the bottom, followed by a series of dolomite, dolomitic limestone with oolitic ironstones, and chamositic mudstones at the top. Conodonts from these carbonates indicate the delta-pesavis zones of the late Lochkovian. The 12- to 45-m-thick Ferizli Formation unconformably overlies the Fındıklı Formation with a quartz-arenite succession at the bottom. The formation comprises alternating red, iron-rich limestones and dolomitic limestones, where iron-rich bioclastic grainstones are more dominant than iron-rich oolitic grainstones. The dolomitic limestones in this succession mark the ensensis and hemiansatus zones of the middle Givetian age. Mineralogically, the carbonates are dominated by goethitized and chamositized fossil fragments and chamositic oolites. In the oolitic facies, the oolites are made up of iron-bearing carbonates/iron, the bioclast of micritized/ironized brachiopods, and crinoids, whereas the matrix includes goethite, brown iron-silicates, chamosite, sideritic oolites, quartz clasts, and brachiopods. Partial iron precipitation within microborings or precipitation along the spine holes on echinoid grains is observed in the bioclastic grainstone/biosparite facies. Iron peloids are also recognized in the grainstone facies. Iron precipitation could be explained as precipitation of transported and dissolved iron from a terrestrial environment under wet/subtropical climate conditions within oxidizing and increased pH conditions, or as dissolved iron transported by upwelling currents over the shelves and precipitated under an oxidizing environment. The cyclic occurrence of primary iron in a marine carbonate environment and its extensive distribution over large areas indicates that a controlling mechanism for iron-rich carbonates and mudstones could be related to the cooperation of climate, sea level, and oceanographic changes in the middle Givetian. During the late Lochkovian, the same or very similar controlling factors might have operated, where the alternation of red mudstones can be explained by lateral facies changes or changes in terrestrial/nutrient influx.

An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform

Lower-middle Devonian iron-bearing successions were studied along 2 measured stratigraphic sections in the Çamdağ region of NW Anatolia. Ironstones in the upper part of the Fındıklı Formation in Kabalakdere are characterized by alternating red and green mudstones and sandstones at the bottom, followed by a series of dolomite, dolomitic limestone with oolitic ironstones, and chamositic mudstones at the top. Conodonts from these carbonates indicate the delta-pesavis zones of the late Lochkovian. The 12- to 45-m-thick Ferizli Formation unconformably overlies the Fındıklı Formation with a quartz-arenite succession at the bottom. The formation comprises alternating red, iron-rich limestones and dolomitic limestones, where iron-rich bioclastic grainstones are more dominant than iron-rich oolitic grainstones. The dolomitic limestones in this succession mark the ensensis and hemiansatus zones of the middle Givetian age. Mineralogically, the carbonates are dominated by goethitized and chamositized fossil fragments and chamositic oolites. In the oolitic facies, the oolites are made up of iron-bearing carbonates/iron, the bioclast of micritized/ironized brachiopods, and crinoids, whereas the matrix includes goethite, brown iron-silicates, chamosite, sideritic oolites, quartz clasts, and brachiopods. Partial iron precipitation within microborings or precipitation along the spine holes on echinoid grains is observed in the bioclastic grainstone/biosparite facies. Iron peloids are also recognized in the grainstone facies. Iron precipitation could be explained as precipitation of transported and dissolved iron from a terrestrial environment under wet/subtropical climate conditions within oxidizing and increased pH conditions, or as dissolved iron transported by upwelling currents over the shelves and precipitated under an oxidizing environment. The cyclic occurrence of primary iron in a marine carbonate environment and its extensive distribution over large areas indicates that a controlling mechanism for iron-rich carbonates and mudstones could be related to the cooperation of climate, sea level, and oceanographic changes in the middle Givetian. During the late Lochkovian, the same or very similar controlling factors might have operated, where the alternation of red mudstones can be explained by lateral facies changes or changes in terrestrial/nutrient influx.

Kaynakça

Becker RT, Kirchgasser WT (2007). Devonian events and correlations. Geol Soc London Spec Pub 278: 1–283.

Boncheva I, Göncüoğlu MC, Leslie SA, Lakova I, Sachanski V, Saydam G, Gedik I, Konigshof P (2009). New conodont and palynological data from the Lower Palaeozoic in Northern Çamdağ, NW Anatolia, Turkey. Acta Geol Pol 59: 157–171.

Boulvain F, De Ridder C, Mamet B, Preat A, Gillan D (2001). Iron microbial communities in Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds. Facies 44: 47–60.

Bozkaya O, Yalcin H, Goncuoglu MC (2012). Mineralogic evidences of a mid-Paleozoic tectonothermal event in the Zonguldak terrane, northwest Turkey: implications for the dynamics of some Gondwana-derived terranes during the closure of the Rheic Ocean. Can J Earth Sci 49: 559–575.

Brett CE, McLaughlin PI, Histon K, Schindler E, Ferretti A (2012). Time-specific aspects of facies: state of the art, examples, and possible causes. Palaeogeog Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 367– 368: 6–18.

Dean WT, Martin F, Monod O, Demir O, Rickards RB, Bultynck P (2000). Lower Paleozoic stratigraphy and paleontology, Karadere-Zirze area, Pontus Mountains, Northern Turkey. Geol Mag 137: 555–582.

Derman AS (1997). Sedimentary characteristics of early Paleozoic rocks in the western Black Sea region. In: Göncüoğlu MC, Derman AS, editors. Lower Paleozoic Evolution in Northwest Gondwana. Turkish Assoc Pet Geol Spec Pub 3: 24–31.

de Wijkerslooth P, Kleinsorge H (1959). Zur Geologie der devonischen, oolithischen Eisenerzlagerstaette am Çamdağı bei Adapazar Vilâyet Kocaeli (İzmit), Türkei. MTA Bul 3: 326– 334 (in German).

Dojen C, Özgül N, Göncüoğlu Y, Göncüoğlu MC (2004). Early Devonian ostracods of Thuringian ecotype from NW Anatolia (Turkey). Neues Jahrb Geol P M 12: 733–748.

Dreesen R (1989). Oolitic ironstones as event-stratigraphical marker beds within the Upper Devonian of the Ardenno-Rhenish Massif. In: Young TP, Taylor WEG, editors. Phanerozoic Ironstones. Geol Soc London Spec Pub 46: 65–78.

Ebbighausen V, Becker RT, Bockwinkel J, Aboussalam ZS (2007). Givetian (Middle Devonian) brachiopod–goniatite–correlation in the Dra Valley (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) and Bergisch Gladbach–Paffrath Syncline (Rhenish Massif, Germany). Geol Soc London Spec Pub 278: 157–172.

Ferretti A (2005). Ooidal ironstones and laminated ferruginous deposits from the Silurian of the Carnic Alps, Austria. Bollet della Soc Paleont Ital 44: 263–278.

Ferretti A, Cavalazzi B, Barbieri R, Westall F, Foucher F, Todesco R (2012). From black-and-white to colour in the Silurian. Palaeogeog Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 367–368: 179–193.

Gedik I, Önalan M (2001). New observations on the Paleozoic stratigraphy of Çamdağ (Sakarya Province). İstanbul Uni Earth Sci 14: 61–76.

Göncüoğlu MC (1997). Distribution of Lower Paleozoic units in the Alpine Terranes of Turkey: paleogeographic constraints. In: Göncüoğlu MC, Derman AS, editors. Lower Paleozoic Evolution in Northwest Gondwana. Turkish Assoc Petrol Geol Spec Pub 3: 13–24.

Göncüoğlu MC (2010). Introduction to the Geology of Turkey: Geodynamic Evolution of the Pre-Alpine and Alpine Terranes. Ankara, Turkey: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Monograph Series 5.

Göncüoğlu MC, Boncheva I, Yılmaz OI, Saydam-Demiray G (2008). Middle Devonian “oolitic ironstone” formations within the Paleozoic Carbonate Platform in NW Anatolia. In: International Congress on Paleozoic Climates, 22–31 August, Lille, France, Abstracts, p. 42.

Göncüoğlu MC, Dirik K, Kozlu H (1997). General characteristics of pre-alpine and alpine terranes in Turkey: explanatory notes to the terrane map of Turkey. Ann Geol Pays Hellen 37: 515–536.

Göncüoğlu MC, Kozur HW (1998). Facial development and thermal alteration of Silurian rocks in Turkey. In: Gutierrez-Marco JC, Rabano I, editors. Proceedings of the 1998 Silurian Field Meeting, Temas Geologico-Mineros ITGE 23: 87–90.

Göncüoğlu MC, Saydam DG, Gedik I, Okuyucu C, Özgül N, Timur E, Yanev S, Boncheva I, Lakova I, Sachanski V et al. (2004). Correlation of the Paleozoic units in Bulgaria and Turkey. Ankara, Turkey: MTA-BAS-TÜBİTAK 2004-16B4 Project Report.

Görür N, Monod O, Okay AI (1997). Palaeogeographic and tectonic position of the Carboniferous rocks of the western Pontides (Turkey) in the frame of the Variscan belt. Bulletin Soc Geol France 168: 197–205.

Joachimski MM, Breisig S, Buggisch W, Talent JA, Mawson R, Gereke M, Morrow JR, Day J, Weddige K (2009). Devonian climate and reef evolution: insights from oxygen isotopes in apatite. Earth Planet Sc Lett 284: 599–609.

Kearsley AT (1989). Iron-rich ooids, their mineralogy and microfabric: clues to their origin and evolution. In: Young TP, Taylor WEG, editors. Phanerozoic Ironstones. Geol Soc London Spec Pub 46: pp. 141–164.

Kipman E (1974). Geology of the marine iron deposits in Sakarya Çamdağ. İÜFF Monograph Ser 25: 1–72.

Kozlu H, Göncüoğlu Y, Sarmiento G, Göncüoğlu MC (2002). First finding of Late Silurian conodonts from the “Orthoceras Limestone”, Çamdağ area, NW Turkey: preliminary constraints for the paleogeography. Geol Balc 32: 3–12.

Lakova I, Sachanski V, Göncüoğlu MC (2006). Earliest cryptospore record in NW Anatolia dated by graptolites and acritarchs, Lower Ordovician Bakacak Formation, Zonguldak Terrane, NW Anatolia. In: GCP 503 Ordovician Paleogeography Annual Meeting, 30 August–1 September, Glasgow, UK, Abstracts and Field Excursion Guide, pp. 30–31.

Mamet B, Boulvain F (1990) Microorganismes ferro-oxydants de Griottes carbonifères espagnoles. Bull Soc Belge Geol 99: 229– 239 (in French).

Mamet B, Préat A (2006). Iron-bacterial mediation in Phanerozoic red limestones: state of the art. Sed Geol 185: 147–157.

Mamet B, Preat A, De Ridder CB (1997). Bacterial origin of the red pigmentation in the Devonian Slivenec Limestone, Czech Republic. Facies 36: 173–188.

McLaughlin PI, Emsbo P, Brett CE (2012). Beyond black shales: the sedimentary and stable isotope records of oceanic anoxic events in a dominantly oxic basin (Silurian; Appalachian Basin, USA). Palaeogeog Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 367–368: 153–178.

Ogg JG, Ogg G, Gradstein FM (2008). Paleozoic Time Scale and Sea- Level History and the Concise Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Preat A, El Hassani A, Mamet B (2008). Iron bacteria in Devonian carbonates (Tafilalt, Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Facies 54: 107–120.

Sachanski V, Göncüoğlu MC, Gedik I (2010). Late Telychian (Early Silurian) graptolitic shales and the maximum Silurian Highstand in the NW Anatolian Palaeozoic terranes. Palaeogeog Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 291: 419–428.

Sturesson U, Heikoop JM, Risk MJ (2000). Modern and Palaeozoic iron ooids – a similar volcanic origin. Sed Geol 136: 137–146.

Van Houten FB, Hou HF (1990). Stratigraphic and palaeogeographic distribution of Palaeozoic oolitic ironstones. In: McKerrow WS, Scotese CR, editors. Palaeozoic Palaeogeography and Biogeography. Geol Soc London Memoir 12: 87–93.

Wehrmann W, Yılmaz I, Yalçın MN, Wilde V, Schindler E, Weddige K, Saydam Demirtas G, Özkan R, Nazik A, Nalcıoğlu G et al. (2010). Devonian shallow-water sequences from the North Gondwana coastal margin (Central and Eastern Taurides, Turkey): sedimentology, facies and global events. Gond Res 17: 546–560.

Yanev S, Göncüoglu MC, Gedik I, Lakova I, Boncheva I, Sachanski V, Okuyucu C, Özgül N, Timur E, Maliakov Y et al. (2006). Stratigraphy, correlations and palaeogeography of Palaeozoic terranes in Bulgaria and NW Turkey: a review of recent data. In: Robertson AHF, Mountrakis D, editors. Tectonic Development of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Geol Soc London 260: 51–67.

Young TP (1989). Phanerozoic ironstones: an introduction and review. In: Young TP, Taylor WEG, editors. Phanerozoic Ironstones. Geol Soc London 46: 9–25.

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @ { tbtkearth143892, journal = {Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences}, issn = {1300-0985}, eissn = {1303-619X}, address = {}, publisher = {TÜBİTAK}, year = {2015}, volume = {24}, pages = {21 - 38}, doi = {10.3906/yer-1406-7}, title = {An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform}, key = {cite}, author = {Yılmaz, İsmail Ömer and Göncüoğlu, M. Cemal and Demiray, Dilek Gülnur and Gedik, İbrahim} }
APA Yılmaz, İ , Göncüoğlu, M , Demiray, D , Gedik, İ . (2015). An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform . Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences , 24 (1) , 21-38 . DOI: 10.3906/yer-1406-7
MLA Yılmaz, İ , Göncüoğlu, M , Demiray, D , Gedik, İ . "An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform" . Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 24 (2015 ): 21-38 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tbtkearth/issue/12038/143892>
Chicago Yılmaz, İ , Göncüoğlu, M , Demiray, D , Gedik, İ . "An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform". Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 24 (2015 ): 21-38
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform AU - İsmail Ömer Yılmaz , M. Cemal Göncüoğlu , Dilek Gülnur Demiray , İbrahim Gedik Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - doi: 10.3906/yer-1406-7 DO - 10.3906/yer-1406-7 T2 - Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 21 EP - 38 VL - 24 IS - 1 SN - 1300-0985-1303-619X M3 - doi: 10.3906/yer-1406-7 UR - https://doi.org/10.3906/yer-1406-7 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform %A İsmail Ömer Yılmaz , M. Cemal Göncüoğlu , Dilek Gülnur Demiray , İbrahim Gedik %T An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform %D 2015 %J Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences %P 1300-0985-1303-619X %V 24 %N 1 %R doi: 10.3906/yer-1406-7 %U 10.3906/yer-1406-7
ISNAD Yılmaz, İsmail Ömer , Göncüoğlu, M. Cemal , Demiray, Dilek Gülnur , Gedik, İbrahim . "An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform". Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 24 / 1 (Mart 2015): 21-38 . https://doi.org/10.3906/yer-1406-7
AMA Yılmaz İ , Göncüoğlu M , Demiray D , Gedik İ . An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences. 2015; 24(1): 21-38.
Vancouver Yılmaz İ , Göncüoğlu M , Demiray D , Gedik İ . An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences. 2015; 24(1): 21-38.
IEEE İ. Yılmaz , M. Göncüoğlu , D. Demiray ve İ. Gedik , "An approach to paleoclimatic conditions for Devonian (upper Lochkovian and middle Givetian) ironstone formation, NW Anatolian carbonate platform", Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, c. 24, sayı. 1, ss. 21-38, Mar. 2015, doi:10.3906/yer-1406-7