Öz The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between career decision-making difficulties and career barriers, career decision-making self-efficacy, and decision status of university students. The participants were 426 (284 female, 142 male) university students. Data of the study were collected by using the Career Decision Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), Perceived Career Barriers Scale (PCBS), Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale–Short Form (CDSES-SF), and Personal Information Form. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for data analysis. Correlation values were examined to check whether there was multicollinearity among variables. The analyses propounded that perceived career barriers, career decision-making self-efficacy, and decision status (decision-making / not making) explained 45% of the total variance related to career decision-making difficulties. It was found that decision status was the most important predictor of the total career decision-making difficulties, and lack of readiness, lack of information, and inconsistent information subscales.
Albion, M. J., & Fogarty, G. J. (2002). Factors influencing career decision making in adolescents and adults. Journal of Career Assessment, 10(1), 91–126. doi:10.1177/1069072702010001006
Amir, T., & Gati, I. (2006). Facets of career decision-making difficulties. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 34(4), 483-503. doi: 10.1080/03069880600942608
Anghel, E., & Gati, I. (2019). The associations between career decision-making difficulties and negative emotional states. Journal of Career Development, 1-15. doi: 10.1177/0894845319884119
Arthur, M. B., Khapova, S. N., & Wilderom, C. P. (2005). Career success in a boundaryless career world. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(2), 177-202. doi: 10.1002/job.290
Bacanlı, F. (2012). Kariyer karar verme güçlükleri ve meslek seçimine ilişkin akılcı olmayan inançların ilişkisi. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(37), 86-95. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/200085
Bacanlı, F., Eşici, H., ve Özünlü, M. B. (2013). Kariyer karar verme güçlüklerinin çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesi. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(40), 198-211. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/200301
Bacanlı, F., & Öztemel, K. (2017). Kariyer Karar Verme Güçlükleri Ölçeğinin genç yetişkin örnekleminde faktör yapısının ve güvenirliğinin incelenmesi In. 26. Uluslararası Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi 20-23 Nisan 2017 (pp.3033-3034). Antalya: Starlight Resort Hotel.
Balın, E. (2008). The role of perceived career barriers and gender in commitment to career choices of university students. Master’s thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1981). The relationship of career-related self-efficacy expectations to perceived career options in college women and men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28(5), 399-410. doi: 10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.2069
Betz, N. E., & Voyten, K. K. (1997). Efficacy and outcome expectations influence career exploration and decidedness. The Career Development Quarterly, 46(2), 179-189. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-0045.1997.tb01004.x
Boo, S., & Kim, S. H. (2020). Career indecision and coping strategies among undergraduate students. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 32(2), 63-76. doi: 10.1080/10963758.2020.1730860
Brown, S. D., & Rector, C. C. (2008). Conceptualizing and diagnosing problems in vocational decision making. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (pp. 392–407). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Bullock-Yowell, E., McConnell, A. E., ve Schedin, E. A. (2014). Decided and undecided students: Career self-efficacy, negative thinking, and decision-making difficulties. Nacada Journal, 34(1), 22-34. doi: 10.12930/NACADA-13-016
Cardoso, P., & Marques, J. F. (2008). Perception of career barriers: The importance of gender and ethnic variables. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 8(1), 49-61. doi: 10.1007/s10775-008-9135-y
Cardoso, P., & Moreira, J. M. (2009). Self-efficacy beliefs and the relation between career planning and perception of barriers. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 9(3), 177-188. doi: 10.1007/s10775-009-9163-2
Cochran, L. (1994). What is a career problem? The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 204-215. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-0045.1994.tb00935.x
Coon, K. L. (2008). Predicting career decision-making difficulties among undergraduate students: the role of career decision making self efficacy, career optimism and coping. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Institute of Educational Sciences, Illinois.
Creed, P. A., Patton, W., & Watson, M. B. (2002). Cross-cultural equivalence of the career decision-making self-efficacy scale-short form: An Australian and South African comparison. Journal of Career Assessment, 10(3), 327-342. doi: 10.1177/10672702010003004
Creed, P., Prideaux, L. A., & Patton, W. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of career decisional states in adolescence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(3), 397-412. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2004.08.008
Creed, P. A., & Yin, W. O. (2006). Reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 6(1), 47-63. doi: 10.1007/s10775-006-0003-3
Di Fabio, A., Palazzeschi, L., & Bar‐On, R. (2012). The role of personality traits, core self‐evaluation, and emotional intelligence in career decision‐making difficulties. Journal of Employment Counseling, 49(3), 118-129. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1920.2012.00012.x
Di Fabio, A., Palazzeschi, L., Asulin-Peretz, L., & Gati, I. (2013). Career indecision versus indecisiveness: Associations with personality traits and emotional intelligence. Journal of Career Assessment, 21(1), 42-56, doi: 10.1177/1069072712454698
Dursun, A., & Kara, A. (2019). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinde kariyer karar verme güçlüklerinin yordayıcısı olarak kariyer kararı yetkinlik beklentisi ve kariyer seçiminde aile etkisi. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 17(1), 39-55. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/744028
Farrow, C. (2016). Career decision-making patterns of college students with high functioning autism spectrum disorders, learning disabilities, and college students without disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of the Graduate School of The University at Buffalo, State University of New York.
Fuqua, D. R., & Hartman, B. W. (1983). Differential diagnosis and treatment of career indecision. Journal of Counseling & Development, 62(1), 27-29. doi: 10.1111/j.2164-4918.1983.tb00112.x
Gati, I., Kleiman, T., Saka, N., & Zakai, A. (2003). Perceived benefits of using an internet-based interactive career planning system. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(2), 272-286. doi: 10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00049-0
Gati, I., Krausz, M., & Osipow, S. H. (1996). A taxonomy of difficulties in career decision making. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(4), 510-526. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232449197_A_Taxonomy_of_Difficulties_in_Career_Decision_Making
Gati, I., Ryzhik, T., & Vertsberger, D. (2013). Preparing young veterans for civilian life: The effects of a workshop on career decision-making difficulties and self-efficacy. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 373-385. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.001
Gati, I., & Saka, N. (2001). High school students’ career‐related decision‐making difficulties. Journal of Counseling & Development, 79(3), 331-340. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2001.tb01978.x
Gökçe, Z., & Traş, Z. (2017). Lise öğrencilerinin kariyer karar verme güçlükleri ve ego kimlik statülerinin bazı değişkenlere göre incelenmesi. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 15(1), 58-69. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/314861
Guay, F., Ratelle, C. F., Senécal, C., Larose, S., & Deschênes, A. (2006). Distinguishing developmental from chronic career indecision: Self-efficacy, autonomy, and social support. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(2), 235–251. doi: 10.1177/1069072705283975
Hamamcı, Z., Bacanlı, F., & Doğan, H. (2013). İlköğretim ortaöğretim ve üniversite öğrencilerinin mesleki ve eğitsel kararlarını etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 12(44), (284-299). Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/70449
Hijazi, Y., Tatar, M., & Gati, I. (2004). Career decision-making difficulties among Israeli and Palestinian Arab high-school seniors. Professional School Counseling, 8(1), 64-72. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/42732416.pdf
Hirschi, A., Niles, S. G., & Akos, P. (2011). Engagement in adolescent career preparation: Social support, personality and the development of choice decidedness and congruence. Journal of Adolescence, 34(1), 173-182. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.12.009
Işık, E. (2013). Mesleki sonuç beklentisinin yordayıcıları olarak algılanan sosyal destek ve denetim odağı. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, 13(3), 1419-1430. doi: 10.12738/estp.2013.3.1520
Jaensch, V. K., Hirschi, A., & Freund, P. A. (2015). Persistent career indecision over time: Links with personality, barriers, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 122-133. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2015.09.010
Jemini-Gashi, L., Duraku, Z. H., & Kelmendi, K. (2019). Associations between social support, career self-efficacy, and career indecision among youth. Current Psychology, 1-7. doi: 10.1007/s12144-019-00402-x
Jepsen, D.A. (1984). The developmental perspective on vocational behavior: A review of theory and research. In S.D. Brown, & R.W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (pp. 178-215). New York: Wiley.
Jiang, Z. (2016). Emotional intelligence and career decision‐making self‐efficacy: Mediating roles of goal commitment and professional commitment. Journal of Employment Counseling, 53(1), 30-47. doi: 10.1002/joec.12026
Kelly, R. R., & Hatcher, T. (2013). Decision-making self-efficacy and barriers in career decision making among community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 37(2), 103-113. doi: 10.1080/10668926.2011.585114
Kırdök, O. (2010). Bilişsel bilgiyi işleme yaklaşımına göre geliştirilen mesleki karar verme programının sınanması. Doctoral dissetation, Çukurova University, Adana.
Kırdök, O., & Korkmaz, O. (2018). Dimensions of personality and emotional intelligence as predictors of high school students’ career decision difficulties. Educational Research and Reviews, 13(12), doi: 10.5897/ERR2018.3532 Kim, S. Y., Ahn, T., & Fouad, N. (2016). Family influence on Korean students’ career decisions: A social cognitive perspective. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(3), 513- 526. doi: 10.1177/1069072715599403
Lam, M. C. K. (2016). Effects of a career course on students’ career decision-making self-efficacy, indecision and difficulties. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus.
Lam, M., & Santos, A. (2018). The impact of a college career intervention program on career decision self-efficacy, career indecision, and decision-making difficulties. Journal of Career Assessment, 26(3), 425-444. doi: 10.1177/1069072717714539
Lancaster, B. P., RudoLRh, C. E., Perkins, T. S., & Patten, T. G. (1999). The reliability and validity of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire. Journal of Career Assessment, 7(4), 393-413. doi: 10.1177/106907279900700405
Leal-Muniz, V., & Constantine, M. G. (2005). Predictors of the career commitment process in Mexican American college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(2), 204-215. doi: 10.1177/1069072704273164
Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2000). Contextual supports and barriers to career choice: A social cognitive analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 36-49. doi: 10.1037//0022-0220.127.116.11
Li, X., Wang, Y. W., & Kim, Y. H. (2020). The moderation of parental support on the relationship between race-related career barriers and academic achievement. Journal of Career Development, 1-15. doi: 10.1177/0894845320937353
Luzzo, D. A. (1993). Ethnic differences in college students' perceptions of barriers to career development. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 21(4), 227-236. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1912.1993.tb00233.x
Luzzo, D. A. (1995). Gender differences in college students' career maturity and perceived barriers in career development. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73(3), 319-322. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1995.tb01756.x
Luzzo, D. A. (1996). Exploring the relationship between the perception of occupational barriers and career development. Journal of Career Development, 22(4), 239-248. doi: 10.1177/089484539602200402
Mau, W. C. J. (2001). Assessing career decision-making difficulties: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Career Assessment, 9(4), 353-364. doi: 10.1177/106907270100900403
McWhirter, E. H. (1997). Perceived barriers to education and career: Ethnic and gender differences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50(1), 124-140. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1995.1536
Mejia‐Smith, B., & Gushue, G. V. (2017). Latina/o college students' perceptions of career barriers: Influence of ethnic identity, acculturation, and self‐efficacy. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(2), 145-155. doi: doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12127
Metheny, J., & Mcwhirter, E. H. (2013). Contributions of social status and family support to college students’ career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Journal of Career Assessment, 21(3), 378-394. doi: 10.1177/1069072712475164
Morgan, T., & Ness, D. (2003). Career decision-making difficulties of first-year students. The Canadian Journal of Career Development, 2(1), 33-39. Retrieved from http://cjcdonline.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Career-Decision-Making-Difficulties-of.pdf
Mutlu, T. (2011). Lise öğrencilerinde kariyer kararı verme güçlükleri. Master’s thesis, Hacettepe University, Ankara.
Newman, J. L., Gray, E. A., & Fuqua, D. R. (1999). The relation of career indecision to personality dimensions of the California Psychological Inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(1), 174-187. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1998.1656
Nota, L., Ferrari, L., Solberg, V. S. H., & Soresi, S. (2007). Career search self-efficacy, family support, and career indecision with Italian youth. Journal of Career Assessment, 15(2), 181-193. doi: 10.1177/1069072706298019
Öztemel, K. (2012). Kariyer kararsızlığı ile mesleki karar verme öz yetkinlik ve kontrol odağı arasındaki ilişkiler. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 32(2), 459-477. Retrieved from http://www.gefad.gazi.edu.tr/tr/download/article-file/76952
Öztemel, K. (2014). Duygusal ve kişilik ilişkili kariyer karar verme güçlükleri ölçeği’nin kısa formu. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi 5(42), 244-255. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=df933b11-8653-4e7f-b4ec-b1bc7298b19f%40sdc-v-sessmgr03
Özyürek, R. (2013). Sosyal-bilişsel yaklaşımlar. B. Yeşilyaprak (Ed.). In Mesleki rehberlik ve kariyer danışmanlığı (pp. 220-271). Ankara: Pegem.
Page, J., Bruch, M. A., & Haase, R. F. (2008). Role of perfectionism and five-factor model traits in career indecision. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 811-815. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.08.013
Patton, W., Creed, P. A., & Watson, M. (2003). Perceived work related and non‐work related barriers in the career development of Australian and South African adolescents. Australian Journal of Psychology, 55(2), 74-82. doi: 10.1080/00049530412331312924
Penn, L.T., & Lent, R. W. (2019). The joint roles of career decision self-efficacy and personality traits in the prediction of career decidedness and decisional difficulty. Journal of Career Assessment, 27(3), 457-470. doi: 10.1177/1069072718758296
Pulliam, N., Ieva, K. P., & Burlew, L. (2017). The relationship between perceived career barriers and career decision self-efficacy on initial career choice among low-income, first generation, pre-freshman, college-bound students. Journal of College Access, 3(2), 78-97. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1058&context=jca
Quimby, J. L., & O'Brien, K. M. (2004). Predictors of student and career decision‐making self‐efficacy among nontraditional college women. The Career Development Quarterly, 52(4), 323-339. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-0045.2004.tb00949.x
Reese, R. J., & Miller, C. D. (2006). Effects of a university career development course on career decision-making self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(2), 252-266. doi: 10.1177/1069072705274985
Saka, N., Gati, I., & Kelly, K. R. (2008). Emotional and personality-related aspects of career-decision-making difficulties. Journal of Career Assessment, 16(4), 403-424. doi: 10.1177/1069072708318900
Santos, A., Wang, W., & Lewis, J. (2018). Emotional intelligence and career decision-making difficulties: The mediating role of career decision self-efficacy. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 295-309. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2018.05.008
Sauermann, H. (2005). Vocational choice: A decision making perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 273-303. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2004.10.001
Storme, M., & Celik, P. (2017). Career exploration and career decision-making difficulties: The moderating role of creative self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 26(3), 445-456. doi: 10.1177/1069072717714540
Storme, M., Celik, P., & Myszkowski, N. (2019). Career decision ambiguity tolerance and career decision-making difficulties in a French sample: The mediating role of career decision self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 27(2), 273-288. doi: 10.1177/1069072717748958
Stringer, K. J., & Kerpelman, J. L. (2010). Career identity development in college students: Decision making, parental support, and work experience. An International Journal of Theory and Research, 10(3), 181-200. doi: 10.1080/15283488.2010.496102
Sürücü, M. (2011). Mesleki seçim hedeflerinin kariyer engelleri ve sosyal bilişsel değişkenler tarafından yordanmasına ilişkin bir model sınaması. Doctoral dissertation, Gazi University, Ankara.
Swank, J. M., & Jahn, S. A. (2018). Using sand tray to facilitate college students' career decision‐making: A qualitative inquiry. The Career Development Quarterly, 66(3), 269-278. doi: 10.1002/cdq.12148
Swanson, J. L., & Woitke, M. B. (1997). Theory into practice in career assessment for women: Assessment and interventions regarding perceived career barriers. Journal of Career Assessment, 5(4), 443-462. doi: 10.1177/106907279700500405
Sweeney, M. L., & Schill, T. R. (1998). The association between self-defeating personality characteristics, career indecision, and vocational identity. Journal of Career Assessment, 6(1), 69-81. doi: 10.1177/106907279800600105
Şekerli, B. (2016). Ortaokul 8. Sınıf öğrencilerinin kariyer karar verme güçlükleri ile kariyer gelişimleri ve benlik saygıları arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi. Master’s thesis, Gazi University, Ankara.
Taylor, K. M., & Betz, N. E. (1983). Applications of self-efficacy theory to the understanding and treatment of career indecision. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 22(1), 63-81. doi: 10.1016/0001-8791(83)90006-4
Tien, H. L. S. (2001). Career decision-making difficulties perceived by college students in Taiwan. Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 33(1), 87-98. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hsiu_Lan_Shelley_Tien/publication/242093244_Career_Decision- Making_Difficulties_Perceived_by_College_Students_in_Taiwan/links/0c9605357a35e306ed000000/Career-Decision-Making-Difficulties-Perceived-by-College-Students-in- Taiwan.pdf
Tien, H. L. S. (2005). The validation of the career decision-making difficulties scale in a Chinese culture. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(1), 114-127. doi: 10.1177/1069072704270327
Ukil, M. I. (2016). Career barriers to career indecision: a final-year BBA students view. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 13(1), 192-205. doi: 10.17512/pjms.2016.13.1.18
Vahedi, S., Farrokhi, F., Mahdavi, A., & Moradi, S. (2012). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the career decision-making difficulties questionnaire. Iranian journal of psychiatry, 7(2), 74-81. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428641/
Vaiopoulou, J., Papavassiliou-Alexiou, I., & Stamovlasis, D. (2019). Career decision-making difficulties and decision statuses among Greek student teachers. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 16, 74-94. Retrieved from https://pseve.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Volume16_Issue1_Julie_Vaiopoulou.pdf
van Vianen, A. E., De Pater, I. E., & Preenen, P. T. (2009). Adaptable careers: Maximizing less and exploring more. The Career Development Quarterly, 57(4), 298-309. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-0045.2009.tb00115.x
Vertsberger, D., ve Gati, I. (2016). Career decision-making difficulties and heLR-seeking among Israeli young adults. Journal of Career Development, 43(2), 145-159. doi: 10.1177/0894845315584162
Walker, T. L., & Tracey, T. J. (2012). The role of future time perspective in career decision-making. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(2), 150-158. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2012.06.002
Xu, H., & Tracey, T. J. (2014). Ambiguity tolerance with career indecision: An examination of the mediation effect of career decision-making self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 1-14. doi:10.1177/1069072714553073
Yang, W., & Shi, L. (2018). The empirical analysis about effects of career decision-making difficulties on the career decision status in college students. In 8th International Conference on Management, Education and Information (pp.671-677). Shenyang.