Yoğunlaştırılmış Yürüyüş ve Jogging Programının Yüksek Dansiteli Lipoprotein (HDL) ve Düşük Lipoproteinler (LDL) Üzerine Olan Etkisi

Yapılan bu çalışmanın amacı, yoğunlaştırılmış yürüyüş ve jogging programının koroner kalp hastalığı risk faktörlerinden olan yüksek dansiteli liporotein (HDL) ve düşük dansiteli lipoprotein (LDL) üzerine olan etkisini araştırmaktır. Çalışmaya, 66 denek ( 30 erkek ve 36 bayan) gönüllü olarak katılmışlardır. Denekler random metodu ile iki gruba ayrılarak, deney (n= 35) ve kontrol (n=31) gruplarını oluşturdular. Deney grubundaki katılımcılar hedef kalp atım sayısının (HKAS) % 50- % 85 arasında yüklenme şiddeti ile 10 hafta süre ile haftada 4 gün olmak üzere arttırılmış yürüyüş ve jogging programına tabi tutuldular. Tüm ölçümler antrenman programından bir gün önce ve sonra ön test ve son test olarak yapıldılar. İstatistiksel analizler, aritmetik ortalama (x), standart sapma ( SD ) ve “t test” olarak yapıldı. Çalışmanın sonunda; ölçümlerde uygulanan aritmetik uygulamalar arası farka ait “ t testi” nde ölçümü yapılan parametrelerden ağırlık, BKI,DKAS, EKAS, TG, TC ve HDL-C erkek denek ve kontrol grupları arasındaki fark, istatistiki açıdan anlamlı bulunmuştur ( p< 0.05), ESBP ve LDL-C değerleri matematiksel olarak anlamlı istatistiksel olarak ise anlamsız bulunmuştur. Bayan denek ve kontrol grupları karşılaştırıldığında ise fark, DKAS, EKAS, TG,TC, LDL-C ve HDL-C değerleri anlamlı bulunmuştur (p< 0.05) ancak ağırlık ve BKI anlamlı bulunmamıştır. Sonuçta; düzenli fiziksel aktivitede bulunan kişilerde HDL-C değeri artarken, LDL-C değerinde düşüş görülmüştür.

The Effects of the Densely Walking and Cogging Programs on High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C)

The purpose of this studyt was to asses the effects of the densely walking and jogging programs on high densty lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) . Sixty six person (30 male and 36 female) participated as subject of an expriment. Their age values were male ( x = 46.3 ± 5.7) and female ( x = 44.5± 2.7). Subjects were divided into rwo groups with random method, as training and control groups. Subject of expriment group walket and run four times a week for ten weeks at their target heart rate that was bgetween % 50 and % 85. All measurements were taken a day before and after from the training program as pre and posttest. The statical analysis of datas included mean ( x ), standart deviation ( SD), and paried t &#8211; test. The statistical analysis of these measurement showed that when the two groups of male were compared and the difference at weight, BMI, resting heart rate (RHR), resting systolic blood pressure (RSBP), restinng diastolic blood pressure ( RDBP), exercice heart rate (EHR),exercise diastolic blood ptessure (EDBP), TG, TC and HDL-C were found significandly (p < 0,05), but exercise systolic blood pressure (ESBP) and LDL-C were not significantly. The two groups of female were compared and difference at RHR, RSBP, RDBP, EHR, EDBP, TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C were found significantly ( p< 0.05) but, weight losing, BMI and ESBP were not significantly. In finally,both genders&#8217; HDL-C increased and LDL-C decreased wih regular physical activities.

Kaynakça

1. AHA ;Exercise and your heart, American Heart Association Publ.Dallas :9-10, 1999

2. AKGÜN, N: : “Egzersiz Fizyolojisi”, GSGM, E.Ü.Basımevi,C: I, :41-68, c:2 ;158- 178,222,247, İzmir, 1993

3. ASHTON, W.D.,NANCHAHAL, K., WOOD, D.A: “Leisure- time physical activity and coronery risk factors in women”, J Cardiovasc Risc 2000 Aug; 7 (4): 259-66.

4. ASSANELLI, D. BERSATTI, F. FERRARI ,R. BOLLANI, G. FERRARI, M. BALLORDINI, E. GUERRA, GP. PARRINELLO, G.: Effect of leisure time and working activity on principal risk factors and relative interaction in active middle- age men. Coron Artery Dis, 10 (1) : 1-7, 1999.

5. ASTRAND, PO. RODAHL,K.: “Textbook of work physiology, physiological basis of exercise”, 3.Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company N.York, :139-202,471-474, 1986

6. BAUMAN, A. OWEN,N.:” Habitual physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors”, Sydney, Med J Aust Jan 7; 154 (1) : 22-8, 1991

7. BAYSAL, A ve ark : “Diyet El Kitabı” , 3. Baskı, Hatipoğlu Yayınları, : 237-254, Ankara, 1999

8. BERNSTEIN, M.S.,COSTANZE, M.C., JAMES, R.W., MORRIS, M.A., CAMBEIN,F., RAOUX, S., MORABIA, A.: “Physical activity may modulate effect of ApoE genotype on lipid profile”, Centre Medical Un, Geneva Switzerland, Arterioscler Tromb Vasc Biol Jan; 22 (1) : 133-40, 2002.

9. BİLGİN,R. DONMA, O. GÜNDAY, V. SAĞLIKER, Y.: “Lipid profile and lipoproteins in essantiyel hypertension, “Tr.J. of Med. Sci. 20: 81-83, Ankara, 1994. Blood Cholesterol, National Heart, Lung and Blood Instıtute Pub.Maryland:1-19,1996

10. BROUCH, M. POELMANN, ET. SAVAGE, P. FRAGNOLI- MUN, K. ROSS, S. ADES, PA: “Modest effects of exercise training alone on coronary risk factors and body composition in coronary patients”, J Cardiopulm Rehabil May- Jun ; 20 (3) : 180-8, 2000.

11. CARDOSO SALDANA, G. C. Et al: ”Lipid and lipoprotein levels in athletes in different sports disciplines”, Arch Inst Cardiol Mex , May-Jun ; 65 (3) : 229-35, 1995.

12. CASASNOVAS, J.A. et al: “Tobacco, physical exercise and lipid profile”, Eur Heart J Apr ; 13 (4) : 440-5, 1992.

13. ENAR, R.: “Akut Myokard İnfarktüsü- komplikasyonlar 99”, Argos Yayınları:454, İstanbul,1999.

14. EREN, Zerrin.: “Hipertansiyon ve Egzersiz”, Spor Araştırmaları Dergisi, MÜBSYO Yayınları,C.1, S:2:65-69,1997

15. ERKAN, Necmettin.:“Yaşam Boyu Spor”, Bağırgan Yayınevi , :8-10,47,63-76, Ankara, 2000.

16. FORREST,KY. BUNKER, CH. KRISTA, AM. UKOLI, FA. HUSTON, SL. MARKOVIC,N.: “Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in a developing population”, Med Sci Sports Exerc sep ; 33 (9) : 1598-604, Pittsburgh USA, 2001.

17. FOX, BOWERS, FOSS : “ Beden eğitimi ve sporun fizyolojik temelleri, Çev:Mesut Cerit, Bağırgan Yayınları: 358-366, Ankara, 1999.

18. GOLDBERG, L. ELLIOT, DL.: “The effect of exercise on lipid metabolism in men and women”, Portland, Sports Med Sept-Oct ; 4 (5) : 307-21, 1987.

19. GUO, X., MATOUSEK, M., SUNDH, V., STEEN, B.: “Motor performance in relation to age, anthropometric characteristics, and serum lipids in women”, Goteborg Un. Sweeden, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci Jan; 57 (1) : M37-44, 2002.

20. HALBERT, JA. SILAGAY CA. FINUCANE, PM. WITHERS, RT. HAMDORF, PA.: “Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors : effect of advice from an exercise specialist in Australian general practise”, Med J Aust Jul 17 ; 173 (2) :84-7, 2000.

21. HELBERT, U., HERMAN, B, SHEA, S: “Moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in West Germany”, 1984-1991. Int Epidemiol Apr;23(2):285-92, 1994.

22. HESPEL, P. LIJNEN,P. FAGARD,R. VAN HOOF,R. ROSSENEU, M. AMERY, A.: “Chances in plasma lipids and apoproteins associated with physical training in middle-aged sedentary men”, Am Heart J Apr ; 115 (4) :786-92, 1988.

23. HSIEH, SD. YOSHINAGA, H. MUTO, T. SAKURAI, Y.: “Regular physical activitiy and coronary risk factors in Japanese men”, Circulation Feb 24 ; 97 (7) :661-5, 1998.

24. HU, G. PEKKARINEN, H. HANNINEN, O. TIAN, H. GUO, Z.: “Relation between commuting leşsure time physical activity and serum lipids in a Chinese urban population”, Finland, Ann Hum Biol Jul-Aug ; 28 (4) : 412-21, 2001.

25. İŞLEĞEN, Ç. ve ark : “Düzenli yapılan egzersizlerin kardiak risk faktörlerine etkisi”,E.Ü.Spor Hek.Der. 29 (2):43-58, İzmir, 1994.

26. JUNG, K:” Klinik ve Uygulamada Ergometri”, çev:Kale,R. Alaş ofs. :14 ,İstanbul, 1988.

27. KALE, Rasim: “Sporda Dayanıklılık- Sağlık, Antrenman ve Biyofizyolojik Temeller,Alaş Ofs, İstanbul, 1993 ”Kandaki total kolesterol tayini artık yetersiz” Sağlık ve Yaşam Dergisi, Veb Ofset, (12) : 51, İstanbul, 1977

28. KAYATEKIN, B.M. et al:”A comparison of the blood lipid profiles of professional sportspersons and controls”, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol Oct;42(4) : 479-84, 1998.

29. KIENS, B, LITHELL H, VESSBY, B.: “Further increase in high density lipoprotein in trained males after enhanced training”, Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol; 52 (4):426-30, 1984.

30. KIM, J. FLETCHER, G.F. LEE, J.Y: “Effect of exercise intensity and frequency on lipid levels in men coronary heart disease : Training level comparison trial”, Am J. Cardiol Apr. 15;87 (8): 942-946.

31. KJAER, M. ANDERSEN, L.B. HANSEN, I.L.: “Physical activity- What minimal level is sufficent seen from health perspective ? “, Ugeskr Laeger Apr. 10 ; 162 (15) :2164-9, 2000.

32. KUSHIMA,K. et al: “Effect of habitual physical activity on physical fitness and serum cholesterol in middle-aged male workers”, Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi Apr, 41 (4) . 341-51, 1994.

33. LEHMANN R, KAPLAN V, BINGISSER R, BLOCH KE, SPINAS GA.: “Impact of physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in IDDM”, Zurich, Diabetes Care Oct ; 20 (10) :1603-11,1997.

34. LEHMANN R, VOKAC, A. NIEDERMANN K, AGOSTI K, SPINAS GA.: “Loss of abdominal fat and improvement of cardiovascular risk profile by regular moderate exercise training in patients with NIDDM ( Non- Insulin- Dependent Diabetes Mellitus)”, Zurich, Diabetologia Nov ; 38 (11) : 1313-9, 1995.

35. MAHLEY RW, PALAOĞLU KE, ATAK Z, DAWSON- PEPIN J, LANGLOIS AM, CHEUNG V, ONAT H, FULKS P, MAHLEY LL, VAKAR F, et al : “Turkish Heart Study: lipids, lipoproteins, and alipoproteins”, San-Fransisco, J Lipid Res Apr ; 36 (4) : 839-59,1995.

36. MAHONONDA N, BHURIPANYO K, LEOWATTANA W, KANGKATAT C, CHOTINAIWATTARAKUL C, PANYARACHUN S,SUKRUNGREANG C :”Regular exercise and cardiovascular risk factors”, J Med Assoc Thai Nov ;83 Suppl 2:S153-8, Bangkok, Thailand, 2000.

37. MANNES, B.:”Exercise Your Heart, Collier –Macmillan Ltd. London, : 29-30,1969

38. MARRUGAT, J. ELOSUA, R. COVAS, MI. MOLINA, L. RUBIES- PRAT, J.: “Amount and intensity of physical activity, physical fitness, and serum lipids in men, The Marathom Investigators”, Am J Epidemiol Mar 15 ; 143 (6) :562-9 (Erratum in Aug 1 ; 144 (3) : 317, 1996.

39. MILLER, T.D., BALADY, G.J.,FLETCHER G.F.: “Exercise and its role in the prevention and rehabilitation of cardiovascular disease”, Mayo Medical School,USA, Ann Behav Med Summer; 19 (3) : 220-9, 1997.

40. MOREHOUSE, L.E. MILLER, A.T.: Egzersiz Fizyolojisi, Çev:Akgün N. Ege Ü. Yayınları. :299-304, İzmir, 1973.

41. NAKAMURA, S.: “Influence of exercise and smoking on high- density lipoprotein cholesterol in university student”s, Thoku J Exp Med Dec ; 135 (4) : 443-4, 1981.

42. O’FARREL, P. MURRAY, J. HUSTON ,P. LEGRAND, C. ADAMO, K.: “Sex differences in cardiac rehabilitation”, Can J Cardiol Mar ; 16 (3) : 319-25, 2000.

43. ONAT, Altan, SANSOY, Vedat, SOYDAN, İnan, TOKGÖZOĞLU, Lale, ADALET, Kamil:: “Tekharf”Türk Erişkinlerinde Kalp Sağlığı, Risk Profili ve Kalp Hastalığı “Onan Matb. :16-92, İstanbul,2000.

44. PELLETIER, DL., BAKER, PT.: “ Physical activity and plasma total- and HDL- cholesterol levels in Western Samoan men”, Am J Clin Nutr Oct; 46(4) :577-85, 1987.

45. PIHL, E. JURIMAE, T. KAASIK, T.:”Coronary heart disease risk factors in middle-aged former top-level athletes”,Scand J Med Sci Sports Aug ; 8 (4) :229-35, 1998.

46. PODL, T.R. et al : “Lipoprotein lipase activity and plasma triglyceride clearence are in endurance-trained women”, Metabolism Jul; 43 (7):808-13, 1994.

47. POLLOCK, M.L, WILMORE, J.H,FOX,S.M: Health and fitness through physical activity, J.Wiley& Sons , Newyork :9-10, 1978

48. POWERS, Scott .K:” Exercise Physiology-Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance”, 2.Ed. Human KineticsPub, Champign :329-361,1990

49. PRABHAKARAN, B. DOWLING, EA. BRANCH, JD. SWAIN, DP, LEUTHOLTZ, BC.: “Effect of resistance training on lipid profile and body fat percentage in premenopausal women”, Br J Sports Med Jun ; 33 (3) : 190-5, 1999.

50. RABKIN, SW. CHEN, Y. LEITER, L. LIU, L. REEDER, BA.: Risk factor correlates of body mass index, Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group, CMAJ Jul 1; 157 Suppl 1:S26-31, 1997.

51. RIGLA M, SANCHEZ- QUESADA JL, ORDONEZ- LLANOS J, PRAT T, CAIXAS A, JORBA O, SERRA JR, de LEIVA A, PEREZ A.: “Effect of physical exercise on lipoprotein ( a) and low- density lipoprotein modification in type 1 and type 2 diabetics patients”, Metabolism May ; 49 (5) :640-7, 2000.

52. RUBINSTEIN, A. BURSTEIN, R. LUBIN, F. CHEPRIT, A. DANN, EJ. LEVTOV, O. GENTER, R.GUESTER, PA. DOLEV, E.: Lipoprotein profile changes during intense training of Israeli military recruits, Med Sci Sports Exerc, Apr; 27 (4) ;480-41995.

53. SANGUIGNI, V. et al: “Effect of physical activity on lipids and coagulation”, Clinical trial, Cardiologia Jun;39 (6):425-39, 1994.

54. SCHEEN, AJ. PAQUOT, N.: “Beneficial effects of physical activitiy on cardiovascular risk factors”, Rev Med Liege Apr; 56 (4) : 239-43, 2001.

55. SENTI, M. ELOSUA, R. TOMAS,M. SALA, J. MASIA, R. ORDOVAS, JM. SHEN, H. MARRUGAT, J.: “Physical activity modulates the combined effects of a common variant of the lipoprotein lipase gene and smoking on serum trigliseride levels and high- density lipoprotein cholesterol in men”. Hum Genet Oct ; 109 (4) : 385-92, 2001.

56. SOLAK,H.GÖRMÜŞ, IS. SOLAK, T. GÖRMÜŞ, N.: “Spor ve Kalbimiz” ,Nobel Yayınları, s. 34-43, Ankara, 2002.

57. STEFANICK, M.L, MACKEY, S., SHEEHAN , M., ELLSWORTH, N., HASKELL, W.L., WOOD, P.D.: “Effect of diet end exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol”, N Engl J Med Jul 2; 339 (1) :12-20, Stanford Un. California, USA, 1998.

58. THOMPSON, GR. CARLSON, LA. ILLINGWORTH, DR. STEIN, E. UTERMANN, G.: A Handbook of HYPERLIPIDAEMIA , Current Science Ltd.London, ;12-13, 168-172, 1990.

59. TOKGÖZOĞLU, Lale.: “Tekharf Çalışmasında “Türk Erişkenlerinde Lipid, Lipoprotein ve Alipoproteinler.” Onan matb.:35-45, İstanbul, 2000.

60. TUNCEL, Fehmi, KOŞAR, Ş, Nazan, ÖMÜRLÜ, K.Yılmaz (Çev): “Temel Hayat Kurtarma, Sanem Matb., :19-24, Ankara, 1997.

61. TWISK, JW. KEMPER, HC. VAN MeECHELEN W.: “Tracking of activity and fitness and the relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors”, Med Sci sports Exerc Aug ; 32 (8) : 1455-61, 2000.

62. UĞRAŞ, Alper Faruk :”Elit düzeyde spor yaptıktan sonra yarışma sporunu bırakmış sporcularda koroner kalp hastalıkları risk profilinin araştırılması”, GÜ. Sağlık Bil.Enst. Doktora Tezi, Ankara, 1999.

63. VISICH, PS, GOSS, FL. GORDON, PM, ROBERTSON, RJ. WARTY, V. DENYS, BG. METZ, KF:” Effect of exercise with varying energy expenditure on high- density lipoprotein-cholesterol”, Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol ; 72 (3) : 242-48, 1996.

64. WOOF-MAY, K. KEARNEY, EM. JONES, DW. DAVISON, RC. COLEMAN, D, BIRD, SR.: The effect of two- different 18 week walking programmes on aerobic fitness, selected blood lipids and factor XII a, J sports Sci Nov; 16 (8) :701-10, 1998.

65. YAMAN, Hakan : Kadın ve spor kavramına ilişkin güncel gelişmeler,Spor ve Tıp Der. Oc-Nis 10(1-2) :30, 2002.

66. YOUNG, DR. SHARP, DS. CURB, DJ.: Association among baseline physical activity and subsequent cardiovascular risk factors, Med Sci Sports Exerc Dec; 27 (12) :1646-54, 1995.

67. ZIOGAS, GG. THOMAS, TR. HARRIS, WS.:Exercise training, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, and LDL subfraction distribution, Med Sci Spotrs Exerc Aug ; 29 (8) : 986-91, 1997.

68. ZOHMAN , L.R : “Exercise your way to fitness and heart health”, American Heart Association Pub.:11-19 , Dallas(Texas ,1983.

69. ZORBA, Erdal.: Herkes İçin Spor ve Fiziksel Uygunluk, GSGM y,:38-41, 60-66, 273, Ankara , 1999.

Kaynak Göster