Engelli Sporcuların Objektifinden Spor Deneyimini Görmek: Engelleyici Faktörlerin Sosyo-Ekolojik Model Perspektifinden Analizi

Bu araştırmanın amacı, bedensel engelli sporcuların spora katılımlarında karşılaştıkları engellere yönelik deneyimlerini ve bu engelleyici unsurların bireylerin spora katılımlarını nasıl etkilediğini Sosyo-Ekolojik Model (SEM) perspektifinden fotoses yöntemi ile anlamaya çalışmaktır. Yorumlayıcı paradigmanın temel alındığı bu nitel araştırmada katılımcılar amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden ölçüt örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilmiştir. Çalışmada yaşları 20-42 arasında değişen, dördü tekerlekli sandalye atletizm ve yedisi tekerlekli sandalye basketbol olmak üzere 11 bedensel engelli sporcu yer almıştır. Araştırmada hazırlanan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu çerçevesinde yüz yüze ve odak grup görüşmeleri ile fotoğraf verisi olmak üzere üç farklı veri toplama tekniği kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde içerik analizi yönteminden yararlanılmıştır. Analiz sonucunda bedensel engelli sporcuların spor deneyimlerini etkileyen kişisel, sosyal, çevresel, kurumsal ve politik faktörler belirlenmiştir. Kişisel engellerin temelde bedensel engelli sporcuların tekerlekli sandalye sporlarına uyum sağlama ve engellilik durumlarının yarattığı sorunlardan kaynaklandığı görülmüştür. Sosyal engellerin, prososyal davranış engelleri ve damgalamanın yarattığı toplumsal bakış açısı sebebiyle oluştuğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Çalışmada en çok vurgu yapılan çevresel engeller ise spor alanlarına ulaşımda kamusal alanların iyi tasarlanmamasından ve toplumsal yaşamda bireylerin bazı kurallara uymamasından kaynaklanan erişim engelleri üzerine temellenmektedir. Kurumsal engeller temasında spora ilişkin kaynaklara ulaşmada sürdürülebilirliğinin olmayışı ve sistematik yaklaşımların benimsenmediği görülmüştür. Politik engeller temasında ise toplumun engellilere yaklaşımı konusunda yeterince politikalar üretilmediği, medya etkisinin engelliler için yeterince kullanılmadığı belirtilmiştir. Sonuç olarak bedensel engelli sporcuların spora katılım deneyimini etkileyen ve SEM’in beş boyutunu da içeren çok faktörlü engeller bulunmaktadır. Bedensel engelli sporcuların karşılaştıkları bu engeller günlük hayatlarını etkilediği gibi spor hayatlarını da olumsuz etkilemektedir. Bu engellerin ortadan kalkması veya azaltılması durumunda engelli sporlarının daha fazla gelişim göstereceği düşünülmektedir.

Seeing the Sports Experience Through the Lens of the Athletes with Impairment: Analysis of the Constraints Factors from the Perspective of the Socio-Ecological Model

The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of athletes with a physical impairment regarding the constraints they face in their participation in sports and how these constraints affect their participation in sports from the Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) perspective with the photo voice method. In this qualitative study based on the interpretative paradigm, the participants were selected according to the criterion sampling method, which is one of the purposeful sampling methods. Four wheelchair track and field athletes and seven wheelchair basketball athletes with a physical impairment (n=11) aged 20-42 years old included in this study. In the framework of the semi-structured interview form, three different data collection techniques were used in the collection of research data: face-to-face individual interview, focus group interview, and photographic data. Content analysis method was used in the analysis of the data. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that there were personal, social, environmental, institutional and political factors that affect the sports experiences of athletes with a physical impairment. It was found that those personal constraints were mainly caused by the problems of athletes' adaptation to wheelchair sports and their impairment. Social constraints were caused by prosocial behavioral barriers and the social perspective created by stigmatization. The most emphasized environmental constraints in the study were based on the access constraints arising from the poor design of public spaces in accessing sports facilities and individuals' failure to comply with certain rules in social life. In the theme of institutional constraints, it was observed that there were no sustainability and systematic approaches in reaching sports-related resources. In the theme of political obstacles, it is stated that there were not enough policies regarding the approach of the society to the individuals with a disability and the media influence were not used sufficiently for the the individuals with a disability. As a result, there are interrelated and multifactorial constraints that affect the sports participation experience of athletes with a physical impairment and include all five dimensions of SEM. These constraints faced by athletes with a physical impairment affect their daily lives as well as their sports life negatively. If these constraints were eliminated or reduced, it was thought that disability sports will develop further.

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Kaynak Göster

APA Argan, M , Gürbüz, B , Koçak, F , Atıcı, M . (2021). Engelli Sporcuların Objektifinden Spor Deneyimini Görmek: Engelleyici Faktörlerin Sosyo-Ekolojik Model Perspektifinden Analizi . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 32 (2) , 75-97 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.898381