Çevre Endişesi, Çevresel Fedakârlık, Normlar ve Yer Tutumunun Çevre Dostu Davranışa Etkisi: Kapadokya/Göreme Milli Parkı Örneği

Doğal destinasyonlarda yapılan rekreatif faaliyetler çevresel sorunları ve çevre sorunlarını azaltma çabalarını etkileyebilmektedir. Özellikle bireylerin farklı değerlere ve kaynaklara sahip alanlara ziyaretleri, kişinin hem kendisi hakkındaki görüşlerini hem de dünyaya bakış açısını etkilemektedir. Bu durum bireylerin davranışlarında da görülebilmektedir. Çalışmanın evrenini, Göreme Milli Parkına gelen ve sıcak hava balon etkinliğine katılan rekreasyoncular oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın örneklemini Kapadokya/ Göreme Milli Park’ına gelen ve sıcak hava balonuna binen rekreasyoncular (n=386) oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada rekreasyoncuların çevre endişeleri, çevresel fedakârlıkları, sübjektif ve kişisel normları ve yer tutumu algıları ile çevre dostu davranışları ve çevreci satın alma davranışları arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiştir. Araştırma hipotezlerini test etmek için Kısmi En Küçük Kareler Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli (PLS-SEM) kullanılmıştır. Bulgular, rekreasyoncuların sübjektif normları ve çevresel fedakârlıklarının çevre dostu davranışı önemli ölçüde etkilediğini göstermiştir. Ayrıca, rekreasyoncuların çevreci satın alma davranışlarının önemli bir bölümünü, günlük yaşamlarındaki çevre dostu davranışları açıklayabilmektedir.

Kaynakça

Ajzen, I. (1991), ‘The Theory Planned Behavior’, Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes 50, ss.179-211.

Ali, F.; Amin, M. ve Cobanoglu, C. (2015), ‘An Integrated Model of Service Experience, Emotions, Satisfaction, and Price Acceptance: An Empirical Analysis in the Chinese Hospitality Industry’, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 00, ss:1–27.

Ali, F.; Ryu, K. ve Hussain, K. (2016), ‘Creative tourists’ experience, memories, satisfaction and behavioural intentions’, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 33(1), ss.85–100.

Arni, A.G. ve Khairil, W.A. (2013), ‘Promoting Collaboration Between Local Community and Park Management Towards Sustainable Outdoor Recreation’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 91, ss.57 – 65.

Atay, L. ve Dilek, S. E. (2013), ‘Konaklama İşletmelerinde Yeşil Pazarlama Uygulamaları: İbis Otel Örneği’, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, C.18, S.1, ss. 203-219.

Bagozzi, R. P. ve Yi, Y. (1988), ‘On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.

Ballantyne, R.; Packer, J. ve Hughes, K. (2008), ‘Environmental Awareness, Interests and Motives of Botanic Gardens Visitors: Implications for Interpretive Practice’, Tourism Management, no: 29, ss. 439–444.

Bell, S.; Tyrvainen, L.; Seivanen, T.; Probstl, U. ve Simpson, M. (2007), ‘Outdoor Recreation and Nature Tourism: A European Perspective’, Living Reviews in Landscape Research, 1, 2.

Bricker, K. S. ve Kerstetter, D. L. (2000), ‘Level of Specialization and Place Attachment: An Exploratory Study of Whitewater Recreationists’, Leisure Sciences, 22(4), pp:233-257.

Brownlee, M. (2012), ‘Nature-Based Recreationists' Perceptions of Climate Change and Attitudes Towards Climate Change Mitigation in Natural Environments’, Doctoral Dissertation, In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management Clemson University.

Brownlee, M. T. J.; Hallo, J. C.; Moore, D. D.; Powel, R. B. ve Wright, B. A. (2014), ‘Attitudes toward Water Conservation: The Influence of Site-Specific Factors and Beliefs in Climate Change’, Society and Natural Resources, 27, ss. 964–982, Taylor & Francis Group.

Brownlee, M. T. J.; Hallo, J. C.; Jodice, L. W.; Moore, D. D.; Powel, R. B. ve Wright B. A. (2015), ‘Place Attachment and Marine Recreationist’s Attitudes toward Offshore Wind Energy Development’, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol:47, no:2, ss. 263-284.

Budruk, M.; Thomas, H. ve Tyrrel, T. (2009), ‘Urban Green Spaces: A Study of Place Attachment and Environmental Attitudes in India’, Society and Natural Resources, 22, ss. 824–839.

Buhalis, D. ve Amaranggana, A. (2014), ‘Smart Tourism Destinations’, Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, ss.553-564

Carranza, R.; Diaz, E. ve Martin, D. (2018), ‘The Influence of Quality on Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty with an Importance-Performance Map Analysis: Exploring the Mediating Role of Trust’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, Vol. 9 Issue: 3, ss.380-396.

Chan R. Y. K. ve Lau L. B. Y. (2002), ‘Explaining Green Purchasing Behavior’, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 14:2-3, ss. 9-40.

Chen, T. B. ve Chai, L. T. (2010), ‘Attitude towards the Environment and Green Products: Consumers’s Perspective’, Management Science and Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, ss. 27-39.

Chin, Wynne W.; Peterson, R. A. ve Brown, S. P. (2008), ‘Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing: Some Practical Reminders’, The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, vol. 16, no. 4, ss. 287-298.

Chiu, H.Y.T.; Lee, W.I. ve Chen, T.H. (2014), ‘Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Ecotourism: Antecedents and Implications’, Tourism Management, 40, ss. 321-329.

Conner, M. ve Armitage, C. J. (1998), ‘Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review and Avenues for Further Research’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 15,ss. 1429-1464.

Crouch, G. I.; Devinney, T. M.; Dolnicar, S.; Huybers, T.; Louviere, J. ve Oppewal, H. (2005), ‘New Horses for Old Courses: Questioning the Limitations of Sustainable Tourism to Supply-Driven Measures and the Nature-Based Contex’, Paper presented at the ANZMAC, Fremantle, WA.

Davis, J. L.; Le, B. ve Coy, A. E. (2011), ‘Building a Model of Commitment to the Natural Environment to Predict Ecological Behavior and Willingness to Sacrifice’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31, ss. 257-265.

Diamantopoulos, A. ve Siguaw, J.A., (2006), ‘Formative Versus Reflective Indicators in Organizational Measure Development: A Comparison and Empirical Illustration’, Br. J. Econ. Manag., 17, ss. 263–282.

Dolnicar, S. (2006), ‘Nature-Conserving Tourists: The Need for a Broader Perspective’, Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 17(2), ss. 235-255.

Dunlap, R. E.; Liere, K. D. V.; Mertig, A. G. ve Jones, R. E. (2000), ‘Measuring Endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm: A revised NEP scale’, Journal of Social Issues, Vol:56, No:3, ss. 425–444.

Fahmy, R.; Bachtiar N.; Rahim, R. ve Malik M. (2015),‘Measuring Student Perceptions to Personal Characters Building in Education: An Indonesian Case in Implementing New Curriculum in High School’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, ss. 851 – 858.

Fornell, C. ve Larcker, D.F. (1981), ‘Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error’, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18 No. 1, ss. 39 50.

Hair, J. F.; Ringle, C. M. ve Sarstedt, M. (2011), ‘PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet’, The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 19 No. 2, ss. 139-152.

Hair, J. F.; Sarstedt, M.; Hopkins, L. G. ve Kuppelwieser, V. (2014), ‘Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM): An Emerging Tool in Business Research’, European Business Review, Vol. 26 No. 2, ss. 106-121.

Halpenny, E. A. (2010), ‘Pro-Environmental Behaviours and Park Visitors: The Effect of Place Attachment’, Journal of Environmental Psychology 30, ss. 409-421.

Hammitt, W. E.; Kyle, G. T. ve Oh, Chi-Ok (2009), ‘Comparison of Place Bonding Models in Recreation Resource Management’, Journal of Leisure Research, 41, 1, ss. 57-72.

Harland, P.; Staats, H. ve Wilke, H. A. M. (1999), ‘Explaining Pro-Environmental Intention and Behavior by the Theory of Planned Behavior and Personal Norms’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 12, ss. 2505-2528.

Henseler, J.; Ringle, C. M. ve Sinkovics, R. (2009), ‘The Use of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling in International Marketing’, Advances in International Marketing, Vol. 20, ss. 277-319.

Henseler, J.; Ringle, C. M.; Sarstedt, M. (2015), ‘A New Criterion for Assessing Discriminant Validity in Variance-Based Structural Equation Modeling’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, January, Volume 43, Issue 1, ss. 115– 135

Henseler, J.; Hubona, G. ve Ray, P.A.(2016), ‘Using PLS Path Modeling in New Technology Research: Updated Guidelines’, Ind. Manage. Data Syst., 116 (1), ss. 2–20.

Hulland, J. (1999), ‘Use of Partıal Least Squares (pls) in Strategıc Management Research: A Revıew of Four Recent Studies’, Strategic Management Journal, 20, ss. 195–204.

Jarvis, C. B.; MacKenzie, S. B. ve Podsakoff, P.M. (2003), ‘A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research’, Journal of Consumer Research,30(2), ss. 199-218

Kim, Y. ve Han H. (2010), ‘Intention to Pay Conventional-Hotel Prices at a Green Hotel – a Modification of the Theory of Planned Behavior’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 18, No. 8, ss. 997–1014, November.

Knetsch, J. L. ve Var, T. (1976), ‘The Impacts of Tourism and Recreational Facility Development, The Tourist Review’, Vol. 31 Issue: 4, ss. 5-10.

Korpela, K. M.; Ylen, M.; Tyrvainen, L. ve Silvennoinen, H. (2009), ‘Stability of Self- Reported Favourite Places and Place Attachment Over a 10-Month Period’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, ss. 95–100.

Kyle, G. T.; Absher, J. D. ve Graefe, A. R. (2003), ‘The Moderating Role of Place Attachment on the Relationship Between Attitudes Towards Fees and Spending Preferences’, Leisure Sciences, 25(1), ss. 33-50.

Kyle, G.; Graefe, A.; Manning, R. ve Bacon, J. (2004), ‘Effects of Place Attachment on Users’ Perceptions of Social and Environmental Conditions in a Natural Setting’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, ss. 213–225.

Lee, T. H.; Jan, F. H., ve Yang, C. C. (2013), ‘Conceptualizing and Measuring Environmentally Responsible Behaviors From the Perspective of Community- Based Tourists’, Tourism Management, 36, ss. 454-468.

Lee, Y. K.; Kim, S.; Kim, M. S. ve Choi, J. G. (2014), ‘Antecedents and Interrelationships of Three Types of Pro-Environmental Behavior’, Journal of Business Research, 67, ss. 2097–2105.

Mansuroğlu, S. (2002), ‘Akdeniz Üniversitesi Öğrencilerinin Serbest Zaman Özellikleri Ve Dış Mekân Rekreasyon Eğilimlerinin Belirlenmesi’, Akdeniz Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 15(2), ss. 53-62.

Manzo, L. C. ve Perkins, D.D. (2006), ‘Finding Common Ground: The Importance of Place Attachment to Community Participation and Planning’, Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 20, No. 4, ss. 335-350.

Martin, D. S.; Ramamonjiarivelo, Z. ve Martin W. S. (2011), ‘MEDTOUR: A Scale for Measuring Medical Tourism Intentions’, Tourism Review, Vol. 66 Issue: 1/2, ss. 45-56.

Mehmetoğlu, M. (2010), ‘Factors Influencing the Willingness to Behave Environmentally Friendly at Home and Holiday Settings’, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 10(4), ss. 430-447.

Memon, A.H. ve Rahman, I. A. (2014), ‘SEM-PLS Analysis of Inhibiting Factors of Cost Performance for Large Construction Projects in Malaysia: Perspective of Clients and Consultants’, The Scientific World Journal, Volume Article ID 165158, 9 pages.

Miller, D.; Merrilees, B. ve Coghlan, A. (2015), ‘Sustainable Urban Tourism: Understanding and Developing Visitor Pro-Environmental Behaviors’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(1), ss. 26-46.

Minton, A. P. ve Rose, R. L. (1997), ‘The Effects of Environmental Concern on Environmentally Friendly Consumer Behavior: An Exploratory Study’, Journal of Business Research, 40, ss. 37–48.

Molina, M.; Francez, D.S.; Morena, F.A. ve Saura, I.G. (2018), ‘Development and Validation of a Formative Scale of Technological Advancement In Hotels from The Guest Perspective’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9(3), ss. 280-294.

Mostafa, M. M. (2007), ‘Gender Differences in Egyptian Consumers’ Green Purchase Behaviour: The Effects of Environmental Knowledge, Concernand Attitude’, International Journal of Consumer Studies,31, ss. 220–229.

Mostafa, M. M. (2009), ‘Shades of Green: A Psychographic Segmentation of the Green Consumer in Kuwait Using Self-Organizing Maps’, Expert Systems with Applications, 36, ss. 11030–11038.

Mostafa, M. M. ve Al-Hamdi, M. (2016), ‘Kuwaiti Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Environmental Protection in Failaka Island: A Contingent Valuation Analysis’, Tourism Review, 71(3), ss. 219-233.

Park, H. S. (2000), ‘Relationships Among Attitudes and Subjective Norms:Testing the Theory of Reasoned Action Across Cultures’, Communication Studies, 51(2), ss. 162-175.

Rezaei, S. ve Ghodsi, S. S. (2014), ‘Does Value Matters in Playing Online Game? An Empirical Study Among Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)’, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 35, ss. 252-266.

Ringle, C.; Wende, S. ve Becker, J., (2015), ‘SmartPLS3’, www.smartpls.com (20.05.2019).

Rivera, M. A.; Murphy, K. S. ve Khalilzadeh, J. (2018), ‘Globalization of Workforce: Pls Approach to Higher-Order Value Construct in A Study Abroad Context’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9(3), ss.314-337.

Rubright, H. L. (2014), ‘Consumer Purchasing in Sustainable Tourism: Attraction Sustainability and Its Impact on Decision-Making, A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of the Graduate School East Carolina University, In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree M.S Sustainable Tourism.

Sapihis, M.; Loh S. Y.; Roslani, A. C. ve Chinna, K. (2015), ‘Participation Restriction in Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of Occupational Gap Questionnaire’, JurnalTeknologi (Science & Engineering) 77:33, ss. 49–57.

Schwartz, S. H. (1977), ‘Normative Influences On Altruism’, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319507233_NORMATIVE_INFLUENC ES_ON_ALTRUISM (10.04.2019).

Sie, L.; Phelan, K.V. ve Pegg, S. (2018), ‘The Inter Relationships Between Self- Determined Motivations, Memorable Experiences and Overall Satisfaction: A Case of Older Australian Educational Tourists’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9(3), ss. 354-379.

Song, H.J.; Lee, C. K.; Kang, S. K. ve Boo, S. J. (2012), ‘The Effect of Environmentally Friendly Perceptions on Festival Visitors’ Decision-Making Process Using An Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behavior’, Tourism Management, 33, ss. 1417-1428.

Stacie, P.; Detmar, S. ve Arun, R.(200), ‘Specifying Formative Constructs in Information Systems Research’, MIS Q., 31, ss. 623–656.

Stern, P. C. (2000), ‘Toward a Coherent Theory of Environmentally Significant Behavior’, Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), ss. 407-424.

Tenenhaus, M.; Vinzi, V.; Chatelin, Y. M. ve Lauro, C. (2005), ‘PLS Path Modelling’, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 48(1), ss. 159–205.

Tonge, J.; Ryan, M. M.; Moore, S. A. ve Beckley, L. E. (2015), ‘The Effect of Place Attachment on Pro-Environment Behavioral Intentions of Visitors to Coastal Natural Area Tourist Destinations’, Journal of Travel Research, 54 (6), ss. 730- 743.

Vaske, J. J. ve Kobrin, K. C. (2001), ‘Place Attachment and Environmentally Responsible Behavior’, The Journal of Environmental Education, 32(4), ss. 16- 21.

Williams, D. R.; Patterson M. E.; Roggenbuck, J. W. ve Watson A. E. (1992), ‘Beyond the Commodity Metaphor: Examining Emotional and Symbolic Attachment to Place’, Leisure Sciences, Volume 14, ss. 29-46.

Williams, D. R. ve Vaske, J. J. (2003), ‘The Measurement of Place Attachment: Validity and Generaliz Ability of a Psychometric Approach’, Forest Science, 49(6), ss. 830-840.

Willuweit, Lars (2009), ‘Promoting Pro-Environmental Behavior An Investigation of the Cross-Cultural Environmental Behavior Patterns: The Case of Abu Dhabi’, Thesis From The Department Of Human Geography, Stockholm University.

Yadav, R. ve Pathak, G. S. (2016), ‘Young Consumers' Intention Towards Buying Green Products in Adeveloping Nation: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, ss. 732-739.

Yadav, R. ve Pathak, G. S. (2017), ‘Determinants of Consumers' Green Purchase Behavior in a Developing Nation: Applying and Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior’, Ecological Economics, 134, ss. 114-122.

Yuzhanin, S. ve Fisher, D. (2016), ‘The Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior for Predicting Intentions to Choose a Travel Destination: A Review’, Tourism Review, 71(2), ss. 135-147.

Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H. L.; Zhang, J. ve Cheng, S. (2014), ‘Predicting Residents' Pro- Environmental Behaviors at Tourist Sites: The Role of Awareness of Disaster's Consequences, Values, and Place Attachment’, Journal of Environment Psychology, 40, ss. 131-146.

Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Ye, Y.; Wu, Q.; Jin, L. ve Zhang, H. (2016), Residents’ Environmental Conservation Behaviors at Tourist Sites: Broadening the Norm Activation Framework by Adopting Environment Attachment’, Sustainability, 8, 571, ss. 1-16.

Kaynak Göster

Seyahat ve Otel İşletmeciliği Dergisi
  • ISSN: 1304-7590
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 3 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 2004

627246