PAZAR ARAŞTIRMA(CI)SI VE PAZARLAMA ARAŞTIRMA(CI)SI: ULUSAL PAZARLAMA AKADEMİSİNDE PARADİGMATİK DÖNÜŞÜM GEREKSİNİMİ

Bu kavramsal makalede, betimleyici araştırma ile teori testi araştırması uçlarına sahip süreklilik kapsamında pazar araştırması ve pazarlama araştırması ile pazar araştırmacısı ve pazarlama araştırmacısı kavramları tanımlanmıştır. Ayrıca pazar araştırmacısı ve pazarlama araştırmacısı ayrımının kurgusal düzey perspektifinden, araştırma soruları bakımından ve metodolojik araçları bakımından karşılaştırılması da yapılmıştır. Ulusal pazarlama akademisi kapsamında gerçekleşen bilgi üretim sürecine yönelik bir tehdit olduğu düşünülen pratik katkı - teorik katkı gerilimi sorunsalına ilişkin tartışma da bu kavramsal makale kapsamında ele alınmıştır. Yapılan tartışmalar neticesinde ulusal pazarlama akademisi kapsamında pazar araştırması odaklılıktan pazarlama araştırması odaklılığa doğru bir paradigmatik dönüşüm gerekliliği olduğu vurgulanmıştır. Bu paradigmatik dönüşüm ile hem pazarlama disiplininin hem de pazarlama akademisinin ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde bilimsel itibarının olumlu yönde değişeceği ileri sürülmüştür.

MARKET RESEARCH(ER) AND MARKETING RESEARCH(ER): THE NEED FOR A PARADIGMATIC SHIFT IN TURKISH MARKETING ACADEMIA

Based on the bipolar continuum in which descriptive research and theory testing research are the endpoints, the present paper defines the concepts of market research, market researcher, marketing research, and marketing researcher. Moreover, a comparison between market research and marketing research is made from the perspectives of how the research question is construed, what kind of research question is examined, and which methodological tools are frequently used. The tension between practical contribution and theoretical contribution, which is evaluated as a threat towards the knowledge generation process in Turkish marketing academia, is discussed in the current paper. The discussion suggests a paradigmatic shift that requires Turkish marketing researchers to focus on marketing research rather than market research. It is believed that this paradigmatic shift will enhance the scientific reputation of marketing discipline and marketing academia.

Kaynakça

Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., Sechrest, L., Reno, R. R., Roediger III, H. L., Scarr, S. ve Sherman, S. J. (1990). Graduate Training In Statistics, Methodology, and Measurement In Psychology: A Survey of PhD Programs In North America. American Psychologist, 45(6): 721-734.

Alderson, W. ve Cox, R. (1948). Towards a Theory of Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 13(2): 137-152.

Armstrong, J. S. (1970). How To Avoid Exploratory Research. Journal of Advertising Research, 10(4): 27-30.

Aronson, E. (2012). The Social Animal (Eleventh edition). Worth publishers, New York: NY.

Arsel, Z. (2017). Asking Questions With Reflexive Focus: A tutorial On Designing and Conducting Interviews. Journal of Consumer Research, 44(4): 939-948.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1975). Marketing As Exchange. Journal of Marketing, 39(4): 32-39.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1977). Is All Social Exchange Marketing?: A reply. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 5(4): 315-326.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1978). Marketing As Exchange: A Theory of Transactions In The Marketplace. American Behavioral Scientist, 21(4): 535-556.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1980). Causal Models In Marketing. Wiley, London: UK.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models With Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: A Comment. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3): 375-381.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1984). A Prospectus For Theory Construction In Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 48(1): 11-29.

Bagozzi, R. P. (2011). Measurement and Meaning In Information Systems and Organizational Research: Methodological and Philosophical Foundations. MIS Quarterly, 35(2): 261-292.

Bagozzi, R. P. ve Yi, Y. (2012). Specification, Evaluation, and Interpretation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 40(1): 8-34.

Bar-Anan, Y., Liberman, N. ve Trope, Y. (2006). The Association Between Psychological Distance and Construal Level: Evidence From an Implicit Association Test. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135(4): 609-622.

Bartels, R. (1968). The General Theory of Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 32(1): 29-33.

Bartels, R. (1974). The Identity Crisis in Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 38(4): 73-76.

Baskin, E., Wakslak, C. J., Trope, Y. ve Novemsky, N. (2014). Why Feasibility Matters More to Gift Receivers Than to Givers: A Construal-Level Approach to Gift Giving. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(1): 169-182.

Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Escaping The Self: Alcoholism, Spirituality, Masochism, and Other Flights From The Burden of Selfhood. Basic Books, New York: NY.

Belk, R., Fischer, E. ve Kozinets, R. V. (2012). Qualitative Consumer and Marketing Research. Sage, London: UK.

Bernoulli, D. (1954). Exposition Of a New Theory On The Measurement of Risk. Econometrica, 22: 23-36.

Boyd, R. N. (1983). On the Current Status of The Issue of Scientific Realism. Erkenntnis, 19(1-3): 45-90.

Burrell, G. ve Morgan, G. (1979). Sociology Paradigm and Organisational Analysis: Elements of The Sociology of Corporate Life. Helnemann, London: UK.

Calder, B. J., Phillips, L. W. ve Tybout, A. M. (1981). Designing Research For Application. Journal of Consumer Research, 8(2): 197-207.

Calder, B. J., Phillips, L. W. ve Tybout, A. M. (1982). The Concept of External Validity. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(3): 240-244.

Carpenter, G. S. (2017). Market Orientation: Reflections On Field-Based, Discovery-Oriented Research. AMS Review, 7(1-2): 13-19.

Colquitt, J. A. ve Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2007). Trends in Theory Building and Theory Testing: A five-Decade Study of The Academy of Management Journal. Academy of Management Journal, 50(6): 1281-1303.

Dhar, R. ve Kim, E. Y. (2007). Seeing The Forest or The Trees: Implications of Construal Level Theory For Consumer Choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(2): 96-100.

Eisenhardt, K. M. ve Graebner, M. E. (2007). Theory Building From Cases: Opportunities and Challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1): 25-32.

El-Ansary, A., Shaw, E. H. ve Lazer, W. (2018). Marketing’s Identity Crisis: Insights From the History of Marketing Thought. AMS Review, 8(1-2): 1-13.

Erdoğan, B. Z., Tiltay, M. A. ve Kimzan, H. S. (2011). Pazarlama Teorisi’nin Felsefi Temelleri: Değişim mi, İlişki mi?. Tüketici ve Tüketim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(1): 1-27.

Erdoğan, B. Z. ve Ekici, N. (2013). Sosyoloji Biliminin Pazarlamaya Katkıları Üzerine Bir Deneme. Tüketici ve Tüketim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(2): 1-22.

Erdoğan, B. Z. ve İşlek, M. S. (2013). Pazarlamaya Farklı Yaklaşımlar ve Kültürün Bu Yaklaşımlar Üzerindeki Rolü: Anglo-Sakson, Alp-German ve Anadolu Yaklaşımları Karşılaştırması. Pazarlama ve Pazarlama Araştırmaları Dergisi, 6(2): 117-138.

Erdoğan, B. Z. ve Çifci, S. D. (2015). Uygulamalı Sentez Bir Sosyal Bilim Olarak Pazarlama. Pazarlama Teorisi ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 1(1): 1-21.

Erdoğan, B. Z. (2018). Bilim Olarak Pazarlama. Beta Yayıncılık, İstanbul: Türkiye.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G. ve Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible Statistical Power Analysis Program For The Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2): 175-191.

Ferber, R. (1977). Research By Convenience. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(1): 57-58.

Festinger, L. (1954). A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations, 7(2): 117-140.

Gneezy, A. (2017). Field Experimentation In Marketing Research. Journal of Marketing Research, 54(1): 140-143.

Greenwood, J. D. (1992). Realism, Empiricism and Social Constructionism: Psychological Theory and The Social Dimensions of Mind and Action. Theory & Psychology, 2(2): 131-151.

Grönroos, C. (1996). Relationship Marketing: Strategic and Tactical Implications. Management Decision, 34(3): 5-14.

Grönroos, C. (2011). Value Co-Creation In Service Logic: A Critical Analysis. Marketing Theory, 11(3): 279-301.

Gummesson, E. (1987). The New Marketing—Developing Long-Term Interactive Relationships. Long Range Planning, 20(4): 10-20.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M. ve Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed A Silver Bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2): 139-152.

Hunt, S. D. (1976). The Nature and Scope of Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 40(3): 17-28.

Hunt, S. D. (1983). Marketing Theory: The Philosophy of Marketing Science. Richard D. Irwin Inc, Homewood: IL.

Hunt, S. D. (1991). Positivism and Paradigm Dominance In Consumer Research: Toward Critical Pluralism and Rapprochement. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(1): 32-44.

Hunt, S. D. (2010). Marketing Theory: Foundations, Controversy, Strategy, Resource-Advantage Theory. ME Sharpe, Armonk: NY.

Hunt, S. D. (2015). Explicating The Inductive Realist Model of Theory Generation. AMS Review, 5(1-2): 20-27.

Janiszewski, C., Labroo, A. A. ve Rucker, D. D. (2016). A Tutorial In Consumer Research: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Appreciation In DeductiveConceptual Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 43(2): 200-209.

Jaworski, B. J. ve Kohli, A. K. (2017). Conducting Field-Based, DiscoveryOriented Research: Lessons From Our Market Orientation Research Experience. AMS Review, 7(1-2): 4-12.

Kahneman, D. ve Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, Values, and Frames. American Psychologist, 39(4): 341-350.

Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L. ve Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The Endowment Effect, Loss Aversion, and Status Quo Bias. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1): 193-206.

Kahneman, D. (2003). A Perspective On Judgment and Choice: Mapping Bounded Rationality. American Psychologist, 58(9): 697-720.

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. Farrar, Status and Giroux: New York.

Kenworthy, T. P. ve Sparks, J. R. (2016). A Scientific Realism Perspective On Scientific Progress In Marketing: An Analysis of Theory Testing In Marketing’s Major Journals. European Management Journal, 34(5): 466- 474.

Kerr, N. L. (1998). HARKing: Hypothesizing After The Results Are Known. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2(3): 196-217.

Koçak, G. N. (2018). Pazarlama Araştırmalarının Pozitif Niteliği ve Normatif Pazar Araştırmalarından Farkı: Örnek Olay Sunumu. Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 6(71): 75-87.

Kotler, P. ve Levy, S. J. (1969). Broadening The Concept of Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 33(1): 10-15.

Kotler, P. ve Zaltman, G. (1971). Social Marketing: An Approach To Planned Social Change. Journal of Marketing, 35: 3-12.

Kotler, P. (1972). A Generic Concept of Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 36(2): 46-54.

Kotler P. (1997). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control (9th edition). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River: NJ.

Kotler, P. ve Armstrong, G. (2010). Principles of Marketing. Pearson Education, Princeton: NJ.

Kuhn, T. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd edition). University of Chicago Press, Chicago: IL.

Lewin, K. (1952). Field Theory In Social Science: Selected Theoretical Papers by Kurt Lewin. Tavistock, London: UK.

Lynch, J. G. (1983). The Role of External Validity In Theoretical Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 10(1): 109-111.

Lynch, J. G., Alba, J. W., Krishna, A., Morwitz, V. G. ve Gürhan Canli, Z. (2012). Knowledge Creation In Consumer Research: Multiple Routes, Multiple Criteria. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(4): 473-485.

McAlpine, L. ve Norton, J. (2006). Reframing Our Approach To Doctoral Programs: An Integrative Framework For Action and Research. Higher Education Research & Development, 25(1): 3-17.

Morales, A. C., Amir, O. ve Lee, L. (2017). Keeping It Real In Experimental Research—Understanding When, Where, and How To Enhance Realism and Measure Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 44(2): 465-476.

Morgan, R. M. ve Hunt, S. D. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3): 20-38.

Nosek, B. A., Spies, J. R. ve Motyl, M. (2012). Scientific Utopia: II. Restructuring Incentives and Practices to Promote Truth Over Publishability. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6): 615-631.

Nosek, B. A., Alter, G., Banks, G. C., Borsboom, D., Bowman, S. D., Breckler, S. J. ve Contestabile, M. (2015). Promoting An Open Research Culture. Science, 348(6242): 1422-1425.

Nunnally, J. C. ve Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (McGraw-Hill Series in Psychology). McGraw-Hill, New York: NY.

Open Science Collaboration. (2015). Estimating The Reproducibility of Psychological Science. Science, 349(6251), aac4716.

Özen, Ş. (2002). Türkiye’deki Örgütler/Yönetim Araştırmalarında Törensel Görgülcülük Sorunu. Yönetim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(2): 187-213.

Pigliucci, M. ve Boudry, M. (2013). Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press, Chicago: IL.

Popper, K. R. (1968). The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson, London: UK.

Psillos, S. (2005). Scientific Realism: How Science Tracks Truth. Routledge, London: UK.

Ravald, A. ve Grönroos, C. (1996). The Value Concept and Relationship Marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 30(2): 19-30.

Sakaluk, J. K. (2016). Exploring Small, Confirming Big: An Alternative System to The New Statistics For Advancing Cumulative and Replicable Psychological Research. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 66: 47-54.

Shaw, E. H. ve Jones, D. G. B. (2005). A History of Schools of Marketing Thought. Marketing Theory, 5(3): 239-281.

Shaw, E. (2014). The Quest For A General Theory of The Marketing System. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 6(4): 523-537.

Shrout, P. E. ve Rodgers, J. L. (2018). Psychology, Science, and Knowledge Construction: Broadening Perspectives From The Replication Crisis. Annual Review of Psychology, 69: 487-510.

Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D. ve Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-Positive Psychology: Undisclosed Flexibility In Data Collection and Analysis Allows Presenting Anything As Significant. Psychological Science, 22(11): 1359-1366.

Simonsohn, U. (2015). Small Telescopes: Detectability and The Evaluation of Replication Results. Psychological Science, 26(5): 559-569.

Smith, A. (1993). Wealth of Nations. Oxford World’s Classics, New York: NY. Stebbins, R. A. (2001). Exploratory Research In The Social Sciences. Sage, London: UK.

Stephan, E., Liberman, N. ve Trope, Y. (2010). Politeness and Psychological Distance: A Construal Level Perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2): 268-280.

Sternthal, B., Tybout, A. M. ve Calder, B. J. (1987). Confirmatory Versus Comparative Approaches to Judging Theory Tests. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(1): 114-125.

Suppe, F. (1977). The Search For Philosophic Understanding of Scientific Theories. The Structure of Scientific Theories, 2: 1-241.

Sutton, R. I. ve Staw, B. M. (1995). What Theory Is Not. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3): 371-384.

Thaler, R. (1985). Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice. Marketing Science, 4(3): 199-214.

Trope, Y. ve Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance. Psychological Review, 117(2): 440-463.

Tversky, A. ve Kahneman, D. (1992). Advances In Prospect Theory: Cumulative Representation of Uncertainty. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 5(4): 297- 323.

Vargo, S. L. ve Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving To A New Dominant Logic For Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1): 1-17.

Vargo, S. L. ve Lusch, R. F. (2008). Service-Dominant Logic: Continuing The Evolution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1): 1-10.

Vargo, S. L., Maglio, P. P. ve Akaka, M. A. (2008). On Value and Value CoCreation: A service Systems and Service Logic Perspective. European Management Journal, 26(3): 145-152.

Wagenmakers, E. J., Wetzels, R., Borsboom, D., van der Maas, H. L. ve Kievit, R. A. (2012). An Agenda For Purely Confirmatory Research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6): 632-638.

Wang, X., Bendle, N. T., Mai, F. ve Cotte, J. (2015). The Journal of Consumer Research at 40: A Historical Analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 42(1): 5-18.

Wansink, B. ve Ittersum, K. (2016). Boundary Research: Tools and Rules To Impact Emerging Fields. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 15(5): 396-410.

Winer, R. S. (1999). Experimentation In The 21st century: The Importance Of External Validity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(3): 349-358.

Yadav, M. S. (2017). Disciplinary Memory and Theory Development. AMS Review, 7(1-2): 1-3.

Kaynak Göster

  • ISSN: 1309-243X
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 3 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 2008

180 51

Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

WHO IS ENGAGED IN E-WOM? ROLE OF E-LOYALTY, DEMOGRAPHICS, VISIT FREQUENCY AND PRODUCT CATEGORY

SİBEL AYDOĞAN, Murat AKTAN

ULUSLARARASI ÜRÜN YAŞAM EĞRİSİ TEORİSİNİN GEÇERLİLİĞİ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME

Bahtışen KAVAK, Niray TUNÇEL, Berkan BAŞOĞLU, Erman ÇOLAK

MODA BİLİNCİ VE PRESTİJ DUYARLILIĞI: FİYAT DUYARLILIĞI YÜKSEKLİĞİNE GÖRE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ÇALIŞMA

Abdulcelil ÇAKICI, Gül Ferhande CANPOLAT, Banu ES YILMAZ

FARKLI REKLAM İÇERİĞİNE MARUZ KALAN DENEKLERİN İŞLEVSEL, BİLİŞSEL VE GENETİK YANITLARI ÜZERİNDEN REKLAM ETKİNLİĞİNİN ANALİZİNE KEŞİFSEL BİR YAKLAŞIM

Çağatay AKDOĞAN, Ayşe AKYOL

PAZAR ARAŞTIRMA(CI)SI VE PAZARLAMA ARAŞTIRMA(CI)SI: ULUSAL PAZARLAMA AKADEMİSİNDE PARADİGMATİK DÖNÜŞÜM GEREKSİNİMİ

VOLKAN DOĞAN

SANAL MARKA TOPLULUKLARINDA TÜKETİCİ KATILIMI

İrem BURAN, Akın KOÇAK

SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR KURUMSAL MARKA KAVRAMI VE BİST SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİRLİK ENDEKSİ’NDEKİ FİRMALARIN SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR KURUMSAL MARKA UYGULAMALARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

Zeynep ARSLAN

FİNANSAL HİZMETLERDE KURUMSAL MARKA İMAJI VE MARKA GÜVENİNİN BANKACILIK HİZMETİ ALMA NİYETİNE ETKİSİ

Selime SEZGİN, Petek TOSUN, Elif BÖREKÇİ

ÇEVRECİ SATIN ALMA EĞİLİMİNİ ETKİLEYEN FAKTÖRLER: İÇ VE DIŞ CEPHE BOYALARINI SATIN ALMA BAĞLAMINDA BİLECİK İLİNDE BİR UYGULAMA

HAKAN ÇELİK, S. Süreyya BENGÜL, Tufan ACARER

ARTIRILMIŞ GERÇEKLİK UYGULAMALARININ KULLANICI DENEYİMİ, TATMİN VE SATIN ALMA NİYETİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

Mutlu Yüksel AVCILAR, Banu KÜLTER DEMİRGÜNEŞ, Mehmet Fatih AÇAR