Dijital Dünyada Yeni Vatandaşlık Konsepti: Estonya’da E-Vatandaşlık Örneği

Estonya, e-devlet uygulamaları ve e-hizmetleri açısından gelişmiş bir Avrupa ülkesidir. Bağımsızlığını kazandıktan sonra yeni devlet inşasını teknoloji üzerine kuran Estonya’nın e-devlet sistemi; yasal ve teknolojik altyapı, toplumun teknoloji yanlısı bir kültüre sahip olması gibi nedenlerden dolayı güçlüdür. Estonya, dünyada seçim süreçlerinin tümünü internete taşıyan ilk ülkedir. Bu başarısıyla ulusal bir marka haline gelen Estonya, 2014 yılında tüm dünyaya dijital hizmetlerini kullanma ve Avrupa Birliği networkünü kullanma imkanı sağlayan E-vatandaşlık uygulamasını başlatmıştır ve bu uygulama dünyada ilk ve şu an için tektir. Bu çalışma, Estonya’da başlatılan ve herhangi bir ülkenin vatandaşının dijital ortamda başka bir ülkenin vatandaşı olmasına imkan veren vatandaşlıkla ilgili yeni bir söylem getiren e-vatandaşlık uygulamasını araştırmaktadır. E-vatandaşlık uygulaması geleneksel vatandaşlık, devlet sınırları, küreselleşme gibi kavramların yeniden sorgulanmasına yol açmıştır ve dönüştürücü etkisiyle bu kavramları derinden etkileme potansiyeline sahiptir. Ancak uygulama, dijital ortamla fiziksel ortam arasında derin bir bariyere sahiptir başka bir deyişle e-vatandaş sanal ortamda sahip olduğu imkanlara fiziki olarak, ülkeye girmesi de dahil, sahip değildir. Bunun yanı sıra fiziki ortamda hukuki olarak herhangi bir yabancıdan farksız olan e-vatandaş, yerine getirmesi gereken yükümlülükler açısından da özellikle kişisel verilerin korunması noktasında pek çok dezavantajlarla karşı karşıyadır. Bu yönüyle eleştirilen e-vatandaşlık konsepti, Estonya tarafından geliştirilmeye ve diğer ülkelere yayılmaya çalışılmaktadır.

The New Citizenship Concept In The Digital World: Case Of E-Citizenship In Estonia

Estonia is a developed European country in terms of e-government applications and e-services. E-government system of Estonia which established its new state construction upon the technological infrastructure after the independence claims to be strong due to the legal and technologic substructure and its society’s technology-friendly culture. Estonia is the first country running all processes of elections over internet, a success which makes Estonia a national brand. In 2014, the state commenced E-citizenship which enables the whole world to use its digital services and EU network and this is the first and only practice in the world. This study investigates e-citizenship which enables citizens of any countries to attain citizenship of another country and thus brings about a new discourse on citizenship. E-citizenship project lies behind the re-examination of the concepts like traditional citizenship, state borders, globalization and has a potential to influence them deeply via its transformative power. But, the application has a deep barrier between the digital and physical environments. In other words, e-citizen does not have its digital opportunities in physical settings, even as the entrance to the country. In addition to this, e-citizen does not differ from a foreigner in physical settings legally, and even he is subjected to many disadvantages about his obligations especially in terms of protection of personal data. The concept of e-citizen is tried to be developed by Estonia and spread to other countries despite the above-mentioned critics.

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Kaynak Göster

APA Koç, H . (2021). Dijital Dünyada Yeni Vatandaşlık Konsepti: Estonya’da E-Vatandaşlık Örneği . OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi , 17 (35) , 2254-2289 . DOI: 10.26466/opus.869773