Historical Characterization of Kelâm

 In its classical times, kal?m, Islamic theology, was known or even notorious for its dialectical character, namely its problematic, speculative, and disputatious way of discourse. In this long period, however, kal?m always remained essentially a discipline of fiqh, one that aims “understanding” the Islamic revelation. Since its inception, kal?m has been faced with many challenges caused by dialectic, which it owned much as well, but this particular method has never been its essential character as the “new kal?m” movement in modern period has proved. This article is an attempt to characterize what we may call the “classical kal?m” in terms of methodology and from a historical point of view.

In its classical times, k alām, Islamic theology, was k nown or even notorious for its dialectical character, namely its problematic, speculative, and disputatious way of discourse. In this long period, however, k alām always remained essentially a discipline of fiqh, one that aims “understanding” the Islamic revelation. Since its inception, k alām has been faced with many challenges caused by dialectic, which it owned much as well, but this particular method has never been its essential character as the “new k alām” movement in modern period has proved . This article is an attempt to characterize what we may call the “classical k alām” in terms of methodology and from a historical point of view

Kaynakça

Abū Hanīfa. al-Fiqh al-akbar. Istanbul, 1992.

Abū Nu„aym. Ḥilya al-awliyā‟. Cairo: Maṭba„a al-Sa„āda, 1974.

Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal. al-Radd „alā al-Zanādiqa wa al-Jahmiyya. Alexandria, 1971.

Aḥmad Maḥmūd Subḥī. Fī „ilm al-kalām. Beirut, 1985.

Ash„arī, Abū al-Ḥasan al-. Maqālāt al-Islāmiyyīn. Cairo, 1969.

——— Risāla fī istiḥsān al-ḥawḍ fī „ilm al-k alām (ed. Richard Yūsuf al- Yasū„ī). Beirut, 1953.

Baghdādī, al-. al-Farq bayn al-firaq. Cairo, undated.

Bāqillānī, al-. al-Inṣāf. Beirut, 1986.

——— al-Tamhīd. Cairo, 1947.

Bayhaqī, al-. Shu„ab al-īmān. Beirut, 1990.

Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic Philosophy (tr. Liadain Sherrard). London & New York: Kegan Paul International, 1993.

Dārimī, „Uthmān al-. al-Radd „alā al-Jahmiyya. Kuwait, 1995.

Dawwānī, al-. Risāla fī ithbāt al-wājib. s.l. and undated.

Duwayhī, „Alī ibn Sa„d al-. Ārā al-Mu„tazila al-uṣūliyya. Riyadh, 1995.

Ess, Josef van. The Flowering of Muslim Theology (tr. Jane Marie Todd). Cambridge, Massachusetts & London: Harvard University Press, 2006.

Fakhry, Majid. Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Mysticism. Oxford: Oneworld, 1997.

Ghazālī, al-. al-Iqṭisād fī al-i„tiqād. Ankara, 1962.

——— al-Munqiẓ min al-ḍalāl. Damascus, 1939.

Harawī, al-. al-Arba„īn fī dalāil al-tawḥīd. s.l. 1984.

Ibn Fūrak. Mujarrad maqālāt al-Shaykh Abī al-Ḥasan al-Ash„arī (ed. Daniel Gimaret). Beyrut, 1987.

Ibn Kathīr. al-Bidāya wa al-nihāya. Beirut, 1982.

Ibn Khuzayma. al-Tawḥīd wa ithbāt ṣifa al-Rabb. Beyrut, 1983.

Ibn Qudāma. Dhamm al-ta‟wīl. Kuwait, 1995.

Ibn Quṭayba. al-Ikhtilāf fī al-lafẓ wa al-radd „alā al-Jahmiyya wa al- mushabbiha. Egypt, 1349.

Ibn Taymiyya. Muwāfaqa ṣaḥīḥ al-manqūl li ṣarīḥ al-ma„qūl. Beirut, 1985.

——— al-Qaḍā‟ wa al-qadar. Beirut, 1991.

„Irfān „Abd al-Ḥamīd. Dirāsāt fī al-firaq wa al-„aqāid al-Islāmiyya. Beirut, 1984.

Isfarāyīnī, al-. al-Tabṣīr. Beirut, 1983.

Jurjānī, al-. al-Ta „rīfāt. Beirut, 1983.

Jābirī, Muḥammad „Ābid al-. Takwīn al-„aql al-„Arabī. Beirut: Markaz Dirāsāt al-Waḥdah al-„Arabiyya, 2006.

Khayyāt, Abū al-Ḥusayn al-. al-Intisār (ed. Albert N. Nader). Beirut, 1957.

Maqdisī, „Abd al-Ghanī al-. al-Iqṭisād fī al-i„tiqād. Madina, 1993.

Māturīdī, al-. al-Tawḥīd (ed. Fetḥullah Khulayf). Beirut, 1986.

Muḥammad al-Bahiyy. al-Jānib al-ilāhī min al-tafkīr al-Islāmī. Cairo, 1982.

Nasafī, Abū al-Mu„īn al-. Tabṣira al-adilla fī uṣūl al-dīn (ed. Claude Salāma). Damascus, 1993.

Nashar, „Alī Sāmī al-. Nash‟a al-fikr al-falsafī fī al-Islām. s.l. Dār al- Ma„ārif, 1966.

Nīsābūrī, Abū Rashīd al-. al-Masāil fī al-khilāf bayn al-Basriyyīn wa al- Baghdādiyyīn (ed. Ma„n Ziyāda). Beirut, 1979.

Özervarlı, M. Sait. Kelamda Yenilik Arayışları. Istanbul: Isam, 1998.

Qāḍī „Abd al-Jabbār al-, al-Mughnī. Cairo, 1361-1365.

——— Sharḥ al-Uṣūl al-khamsa (ed. „Abd al-Karīm „Uthmān). Cairo, 1965.

Qāsimī, Jamāl al-dīn al-. Tārīkh al-Jahmiyya wa al-Mu„tazila. Beirut, 1981.

Rāzī, Fakhr al-dīn al-. I„tiqādāt firaq al-muslimīn wa al-mushrikīn. Beirut, 1982.

——— al-Qaḍā‟ wa al-qadar. Beirut, 1990.

Shahristānī, al-. Nihāya al-aqdām fī „ilm al-kalām. Oxford, 1934.

Taftāzānī, al-. Sharḥ al-„Aqāid al-Nasafiyya. Damascus, 1974.

Topaloğlu, Bekir. Kelam Ilmi: Giriş. Istanbul: Damla, 1996.

Usmandī, al-. Lubāb al-kalām (ed. M. Sait Ozervarlı). Istanbul, 1998.

Winter, Tim (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Wolfson, Harry Austryn. The Philosophy of the Kalām. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Kaynak Göster

ISNAD Kurt, Erhan . "Historical Characterization of Kelâm". KADER Kelam Araştırmaları Dergisi 11 / 1 (Ocak 2013): 303-314 .