Chemical Composition and Nutritional Characterization of Cotton Seed as Potential Feed Supplement

The potential of cotton seeds to serve as animal feed in reducing feed-food competition between humans and animals was examined in this research. Proximate analysis, mineral characterization, and fatty acid composition of the seed were determined using standard analytical techniques. The protein content of cotton seeds found to be 24.81 ± 0.42% was observed to be above the protein requirement of 18% by rabbits and chicken and 12% for goats and sheep. The combination source of carbohydrates, protein, and fat in which cotton seed is endowed offers an adequate nutritional diet for animals. Carbohydrate and crude fat accounted for 19.30 ± 0.1% and 24.81 ± 0.42%, respectively, making cotton seed a valuable source of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate, all major nutrients needed to maintain animals' proper maintenance. The most abundant mineral was potassium (K), at 126.70 ± 5.77 mg/g, which can help maintain body weight. It could assist in the modulation of electrolyte and water balance in the system. Quality assessments indicate that cotton seed, when properly processed, can serve as an affordable alternative to soybean, maize, and groundnut and is currently used as the major sources of animal protein and energy, thereby reducing the competition between feed and food.


  • 1. Hodges J. Cheap food and feeding the world sustainably. Livestock Production Science. 2005;92(1):1-16.
  • 2. James S, Nwabueze TU, Onwuka GI, Ndife J, Usman MAa. Chemical and nutritional composition of some selected lesser known legumes indigenous to Nigeria. Heliyon. 2020;6(11):e05497.
  • 3. Nah S-L, Chau C-F. Issues and challenges in defeating world hunger. Trends in food science & technology. 2010;21(11):544-57.
  • 4. Muscat A, de Olde E, de Boer IJ, Ripoll-Bosch R. The battle for biomass: A systematic review of food-feed-fuel competition. Global Food Security. 2019:100330.
  • 5. Nweze B, Nwankwegu A, Ekwe O. The performance of the broilers chickens on African porridge fruit (Tetrapleura tetraptera) pod under different feeding regimes. Asian Journal of Poultry Science. 2011;5(4):144-9.
  • 6. Ade-Omowaye B, Tucker G, Smetanska I. Nutritional potential of nine underexploited legumes in Southwest Nigeria. International Food Research Journal. 2015;22(2):798.
  • 7. Harouna DV, Venkataramana PB, Ndakidemi PA, Matemu AO. Under-exploited wild Vigna species potentials in human and animal nutrition: a review. Global food security. 2018;18:1-11.
  • 8. Birt D, Boylston T, Hendrich S, Lane J, Hollis J, Li L, et al. AOAC. 2002. Official Methods of Analysis of The Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Inc., Washington, USA. AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of The Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Inc., Washington, USA.
  • 9. Zubair MF, Atolani O, Ibrahim SO, Oguntoye OS, Abdulrahim HA, Oyegoke RA, et al. Chemical and biological evaluations of potent antiseptic cosmetic products obtained from Momordica charantia seed oil. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy. 2018;9:35-41.
  • 10. Atolani O, Olabiyi ET, Issa AA, Azeez HT, Onoja EG, Ibrahim SO, et al. Green synthesis and characterisation of natural antiseptic soaps from the oils of underutilised tropical seed. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy. 2016;4:32-9.
  • 11. Bayero A, Datti Y, Shuaibu M, Nafisatu A, Asma’u A, Dikko M, et al. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the root bark extracts of Neocarya macrophylla. ChemSearch Journal. 2019;10(2):41-5. .
  • 12. Kamuhu R, Mugendi B, Kimiywe J, Njagi E. Proximate analysis of raw and roasted groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.): Red Valencia and manikanta varieties. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;4(4):191-4. .
  • 13. Sikkens EC, Cahen DL, Koch AD, Braat H, Poley J-W, Kuipers EJ, et al. The prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies and a decreased bone mass in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2013;13(3):238-42.
  • 14. Akintayo E, Bayer E. Characterisation and some possible uses of Plukenetia conophora and Adenopus breviflorus seeds and seed oils. Bioresource technology. 2002;85(1):95-7.
  • 15. Atasie V, Akinhanmi T, Ojiodu C. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009;8(2):194-7.
  • 16. Marín-García P, Ródenas L, Martínez-Paredes E, Cambra-López M, Blas E, Pascual J. A moderate protein diet does not cover the requirements of growing rabbits with high growth rate. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2020;264:114495. 17. Luo J, Goetsch A, Nsahlai I, Sahlu T, Ferrell C, Owens F, et al. Metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance and gain of growing goats. Small Ruminant Research. 2004;53(3):309-26.
  • 18. Beski SS, Swick RA, Iji PA. Specialized protein products in broiler chicken nutrition: A review. Animal Nutrition. 2015;1(2):47-53.
  • 19. Abdel-Salam A. Functional foods: Hopefulness to good health. American Journal of Food Technology. 2010;5(2):86-99.
  • 20. Borges S, Da Silva AF, Majorka A, Hooge D, Cummings K. Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram). Poultry science. 2004;83(9):1551-8. 21. Mishra S, Ingole S, Jain R. Salt sensitivity and its implication in clinical practice. Indian heart journal. 2018;70(4):556-64.
  • 22. Sissi C, Palumbo M. Effects of magnesium and related divalent metal ions in topoisomerase structure and function. Nucleic acids research. 2009;37(3):702-11.
  • 23. Pravina P, Sayaji D, Avinash M. Calcium and its role in human body. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. 2013;4(2):659-68.
  • 24. Prashanth L, Kattapagari KK, Chitturi RT, Baddam VRR, Prasad LK. A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease. Journal of dr ntr university of health sciences. 2015;4(2):75.
  • 25. Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Ågren MS. Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound repair and regeneration. 2007;15(1):2-16.
  • 26. Amos-Tautua B, Inengite A, Abasi C, Amirize G. Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals in roasted food snacks in Amassoma, Niger Delta, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2013;7(10):961-6. .
  • 27. Shin S, Bajpai V, Kim H, Kang S. Antibacterial activity of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against foodborne and food spoilage microorganisms. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2007;40(9):1515-9.
  • 28. Field CJ, Blewett HH, Proctor S, Vine D. Human health benefits of vaccenic acid. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2009;34(5):979-91.
  • 29. Sales-Campos H, Reis de Souza P, Crema Peghini B, Santana da Silva J, Ribeiro Cardoso C. An overview of the modulatory effects of oleic acid in health and disease. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry. 2013;13(2):201-10. 30. Molendi-Coste O, Legry V, Leclercq IA. Why and how meet n-3 PUFA dietary recommendations? Gastroenterology research and practice. 2010;2011.