NÜKLEER ENERJİ ALANINDA HUKUKİ SORUMLUK

Nükleer enerji faaliyetlerinin güvenli bir şekilde yürütülmesi, uygun güvenlik gerekliliklerinin yasal bağlamda düzenlenmesi ve bu faaliyetlerde yer alan tüm paydaşların güvenlik kültürüne sahip olmasına bağlıdır. Güvenlik olgusunun belki de en yüksek derecede uygulama bulduğu nükleer enerji alanında kaza riski oldukça düşük olmakla birlikte meydana gelen bir kaza yıkıcı etkiler yaratabilmektedir. Bu sebeple meydana gelen bir nükleer kazadan zarar görenlerin haklarının korunması büyük önem arz etmektedir. Bu çalışmada, nükleer kaza neticesinde ortaya çıkan zararların uluslararası düzenlemeler ve Türk hukuku çerçevesinde hangi usul ve esaslar uyarınca tazmin edileceği hususu ele alınmıştır. Türkiye bakımından nükleer sorumluluk rejiminin genel çerçevesi “Nükleer Enerji Alanında Üçüncü Şahıslara Karşı Hukuki Mesuliyete Dair Paris Sözleşmesi” ile belirlenmiştir. Paris Sözleşmesi, taraf devletleri millî hukukunda gerekli gördükleri tamamlayıcı düzenlemeleri yapmakta serbest bırakmakla birlikte nükleer sorumluluğa ilişkin kuralların birleştirilmesi amacı çerçevesinde taraf devletlerin iç hukuklarına kaim maddi hukuk hükümleri ihdas etmiştir. Sözleşme’de; nükleer santral işletenin kusursuz ve münhasır sorumluluğu, bu sorumluluğunun miktar ve süre bakımından taraf ülkelerce sınırlanabileceği, sorumluluğun sigorta veya farklı mali güvencelerle teminat altına alınması zorunluluğu ile bunlardan başka usule ve esasa ilişkin birçok husus detaylı bir biçimde düzenlenme bulmaktadır. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası’nın 90. maddesinin beşinci fıkrası uyarınca ise bu hükümler, Türk hukukundaki nükleer enerji alanında üçüncü kişilere karşı hukuki sorumluluk rejiminin temelini teşkil etmektedir.

Civil Liablity in the Field of Nuclear Energy

Execution of nuclear energy activities safely and securely depends on the regulation of appropriate security requirements in the legal context and safety culture of all stakeholders involved in these activities. The risk of accident in the nuclear energy field, where the security incident has highest tendency, is very low, however the accident can lead to destruction. For this reason, the protection of the rights of those who are injured by a nuclear accident is of utmost importance. In this study, it has been addressed that which principles and procedures within the frame of international agreements and Turkish Law are exercised for compensating the damages, which erupt due to nuclear incident. The general framework of Turkish nuclear liability regime has been regulated by "Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy". The Paris Convention creates and forms strict substantive law provisions into the contracting countries' domestic law with the aim of merging the rules regarding nuclear liability, while it liberates contracting parties to make necessary complementary regulations. Paris Convention regulates procedures and principles regarding absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear power plant operator, limitation of this liability by the contracting parties in amount and in time basis, the obligation to cover this liability by insurance or any other financial security. Pursuant to fifth paragraph of the 90th Article of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, aforesaid provisions provide a basis of third party liability in the field of nuclear energy according to Turkish Law.

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Kaynak Göster