GEÇİCİ KORUMANIN ULUSLARARASI KORUMA REJİMİNE UYUMU ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME

Geçici koruma, bağlayıcılık arz eden uluslararası bir kaynakta tanımlanmamıştır. Bununla birlikte kitlesel akın durumlarında, uygulama ile gelişmiş ve şekillenmiştir. Geçici korumanın şekillenmesinde özellikle 90’lı yıllarda, Eski Yugoslavya ve Kosova krizleri etkili olmuştur. Bu dönemde, geçici korumaya yönelik en belirgin uygulama örnekleri Avrupa’da kendini göstermiştir. Bu dönemdeki uygulamaların ortak noktası, 1951 tarihli Mültecilerin Hukuki Statüsüne İlişkin Sözleşme’nin özellikle Bosna ve Kosova’dan yönelen kitlesel akına uygulanmasından imtina edilmesi olmuştur. Bu dönemde BMMYK da bu esnek ve pragmatik uygulamayı, geri gönderme yasağının etkin şekilde işletilebilmesini güvence altına alabilmek adına desteklemiştir. 90’lardaki geçici koruma uygulamalarının uluslararası koruma rejimi ile uyumsuzluk arz eden birçok özelliği, AB’nin Geçici Koruma Direktifi ile giderilmiştir. Bu makalede, geçici korumanın Avrupa coğrafyasındaki doğuşu ve gelişimi incelenmiş, geçici korumanın uluslararası koruma rejimi ile uyumlu olabilmesi için gereken hususlar ortaya konmuş ve sonrasında Türk hukukundaki geçici koruma uygulaması bu hususlar ekseninde değerlendirilmiştir.

An Analysis on the Consistency of Temporary Protection With International Protection Regime

Temporary protection is not defined in a binding international instrument. It is emerged and developed through state practices. European practice in 90’s significantly affected the development of the concept of temporary protection. A common feature of the state practices in Europe in the 90’s was to avoid the full application of 1951 Convention Relating the Status of Refugees. UNHCR on the other hand, supported this flexible and pragmatic method in order to assure the effective implementation of nonrefoulement principle. Although the past European practice demonstrated some deficiencies in consistency with international protection regime, EU’s Temporary Protection Directive mostly restored these shortcomings. Against this backdrop, this article aims to analyze the grounds for the emergence and development of temporary protection in Europe, set the conditions necessary for temporary protection to be in line with international protection and evaluate Turkish temporary protection practice within this context.

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Kaynak Göster