UNRAVELING PRESIDENTIALISM: LEARNING FROM THE LATIN AMERICAN EXPERIENCE

Early studies on presidentialism associated the design with political instability and weak democratic credentials, with deeply divided societies being particularly advised not to craft presidential regimes. Practices of presidentialism around the world later reframed the debate, as the focus shifted to variants of presidentialism. Presidentialism, in all its shades and colors, negates a monolithic set of political outcomes as evidenced by the constant experimentation in Latin America. This study scrutinizes how some reforms in Latin America served to pluralize presidentialism whereas other steps reinforced the opposite results. Lessons can be drawn from the two steps forward and one step back advance of presidentialism in the region. While the changing role of vice presidency, the impact of electoral system reform, and allowing for presidential exit through the intervention of the electorate diffuse power, the growing legislative powers of presidents and flexibilization of term limits dent pluralization.

BAŞKANLIK SİSTEMİNİ ÇÖZMEK: LATİN AMERİKA TECRÜBESİNDEN ÖĞRENMEK

Başkanlık sistemi üzerine yapılan erken çalışmalarda, bu tür bir tasarım siyasi istikrarsızlık ve zayıf demokratik sicil ile ilişkilendirilirken, özellikle de derin fay hatlarıyla ayrılan toplumlar başkanlık sistemi inşa etmemeleri yönünde uyarıldılar. Dünya genelindeki başkanlık sistemi uygulamaları, farklı başkanlık sistemi türleri mercek altına alınmaya başlandıkça, tartışmayı ayrı bir çerçeveye taşıdı. Tüm renk ve tonlarıyla başkanlık sistemi, Latin Amerika’nın sürekli denemelerinden açıkça görüldüğü üzere, tek tip bir dizi siyasi sonucu yadsır. Bu çalışma, bazı adımlar başkanlık sistemlerini çoğulculaştırırken, diğerlerinin aksi yönde sonuçları güçlendirmelerini inceler. Latin Amerika başkanlık sistemlerinin iki adım ileri ve bir adım geri ritmiyle ilerlemelerinden ders çıkarılabilir. Başkan yardımcılığı makamının değişen rolü, seçim sistemi reformunun etkisi ve başkanların seçmen müdahalesiyle görevden alınabilmeleri gücü yayar ve dağıtırken, başkanların artan yasa koyucu yetkileri ve esneklik kazanan görev dönemi sınırlamaları çoğulculaşmayı zedeler.

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Kaynak Göster