CRITIQUE OF THE CRITICS OF GIOVANNI ARRIGHI’S ADAM SMITH IN BEIJING

This short critique of some of the reviews of Giovanni Arrighi’s Adam Smith in Beijing makes four points. First, the characterization of contemporary China as a non-capitalist market economy is the most serious shortcoming of Arrighi’s book. Second, Arrighi’s explanation of the Industrial Revolution in relation to the increasing military requirements of the European states has solid historical foundations. Third, Arrighi makes a cogent argument that the “Great Divergence” of Europe and China was rooted in the relative extroversion of power struggles in Europe versus their relative introversion in China and the consequent imbalance of naval power between the two regions. Finally, Arrighi’s structural analysis of hegemonic transitions in the world system enables the reader to track the links between China’s economic ascent and the crisis of the U.S. hegemony. One of its most important implications is the increasing bifurcation of economic and military power in the contemporary world, signaling the immense difficulty of a single nation-state (including China) to turn itself into a world hegemon.

GIOVANNI ARRIGHI’NİN ADAM SMITH PEKİN’DE BAŞLIKLI KİTABININ ELEŞTİRMENLERİNİN ELEŞTİRİSİ

Giovanni Arrighi’nin Adam Smith Pekin’de: 21. Yüzyılın Soykütüğü başlıklı kitabına yapılan bazı eleştirilerin kısa bir eleştirisini yapan bu makale dört temel argümanı savunuyor. Birincisi, Çin’in kapitalist olmayan bir piyasa ekonomisi olarak tanımlanması Arrighi’nin kitabının en ciddi eksikliğidir. İkincisi, Arrighi’nin Sanayi Devrimi’ni Avrupa devletlerinin artan askeri ihtiyaçları ile ilişkilendirmesinin sağlam tarihsel dayanakları mevcuttur. Üçüncüsü, Arrighi’nin analizi Avrupa ile Çin arasındaki “Büyük Ayrışma” ile güç mücadelelerinin tarihsel olarak ilkinde nispeten dışa ikincisinde nispeten içe dönük gelişimi ve iki bölgenin donanma gücü arasında Avrupa lehine ortaya çıkan dengesizlik arasında kurduğu bağlantılara ışık tutuyor. Son olarak, Arrighi’nin dünya sistemindeki hegemonya değişimlerine ilişkin yapısal analizi Çin ekonomisinin yükselişi ile ABD hegemonyasının krizi arasındaki ilişkinin kavranmasını sağlıyor. Günümüz dünyasında ekonomik güç ile askeri güç arasındaki bağlantının giderek çatallanması, bunun sonucunda (Çin de dahil olmak üzere) herhangi bir ulus devletin kendisini yeni bir dünya hegemonuna dönüştürmesinin muazzam ölçüde güçleşmesi bu analizin en önemli güncel sonuçlarından birisidir.

Kaynakça

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