The purpose of this study was to find the disease and mortality incidences of calves born from pregnant Brown Swiss and Simmental heifers imported from Austria in newly established dairy cattle farm in Manisa province and determine the effect of breed, sex, calving type and calving position on calf health. The study material consisted of the 180-days health records of 62 Brown Swiss and 266 Simmental calves born alive from the pregnant Brown Swiss and Simmental heifers imported from Innsbruck Austria. The first calving of heifers was between June and December. Calves’ mortality rates in 180-days period were 3.23% for Brown Swiss and 4.89% for Simmentals; 5.39% for males and 3.73% for females; 3.14% for assisted born, 9.38% for difficult born and 3.81% for spontaneous born calves. Calves’ most common health problems were digestion, respiratory and foot diseases. It was found that calving position had a significant effect on digestion problems and dystocia complications. Treatment was more successful in Brown Swiss, female, twin and spontaneous born calves.
Azizzadeh, M., Shoorokia, H.F., Kamalabadia, A.S., Stevenson, M.A., 2012. Factors affecting calf mortality in Iranian Holstein dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 104, 335-340. [CrossRef]
Busato, A., Steiner, L., Martin, S.W., Shoukri, M.M., Gaillard, C., 1997. Calf health in cow- calf herds in Switzerland. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 30, 9-22. [CrossRef]
Donovan, G.A., Dohoo, I.R., Montgomery, D.M., Bennett, F.L., 1998. Calf and disease factors affecting growth in female Holstein calves in Florida, USA. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 33, 1-10. [CrossRef]
Fuerst–Waltl, B., Fuerst, C., 2010. Mortality in Austrian dual purpose Fleckvieh calves and heifers. Livestock Science 132, 80-86. [CrossRef]
Fuerst-Waltl, B., Fuerst, C., 2012. Effect of inbreeding depression on survival of Austrian Brown Swiss calves and heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 6086-6092. [CrossRef]
Gulliksen, S.M., Lie, K.I., Osteras, O., 2009. Calf health monitoring in Norwegian dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 1660-1669. [CrossRef]
Gürcan, İ.S., Özen, D., Yamaç, A., Güllü, Ö., 2014. Investigation of effect of year and season factors on calving difficulty, using Poisson regression model in Simmental×South Anatolian Red crossbred cattle. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 61, 55-58. [CrossRef]
Klein-Jöbstl, D., Arnholdt, T., Sturmlechner, F., Iwersen, M. Drillich, M., 2015. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 19, 57-44. [CrossRef]
Lombard, J.E., Garry, F.B., Tomlinson, S.M., Garber, L.P., 2007. Impacts of dystocia on health and survival of dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 1751-1760. [CrossRef]
Lundborg, G.K., Svensson, E.C., Oltenacu, P.A., 2005. Herd-level risk factors for infectious diseases in Swedish dairy calves aged 0-90 days. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 68, 123-143. [CrossRef]
Meganck, V., Hoflack, G., Piepers, S., Opsomer, G., 2015. Evaluation of a protocol to reduce the incidence of neonatal calf diarrhea on dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 118, 64-70. [CrossRef]
Municipality of Manisa. Available from: http://www.manisa.bel.tr/ s23_manisa-cografyasi.aspx) (Date of access: 20.05.2015).
Oğan, M., Türkmen, İ.İ., Seyrek İntaş, K., Şentürk, S., Orman, A., 2011. Temel Sürü Sağlığı Yönetimi Kitabı. T.C. Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayını, No:2333, Syf: 6-146.
Parker, W.H., 1980. Health and Disease in Farm Animals. 3rd ed., Pergamon Press, ISBN: 0-08-025900-6.
Silva Del Rio, N., Stewart, S., Rapnicki, P., Chang, Y.M., Fricke, P.M., 2007. An observational analysis of twin births, calf mortality in Holstein dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 1255-1264. [CrossRef]
Stanton, A.L., Kelton, D.F., Leblanc, S.J., Wormuth Leslie, K.E., 2011. The effect of respiratory disease and a preventative antibiotic treatment on growth, survival, age at first calving, and milk production of dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 4950-4960. [CrossRef]
Svensson, C., Lundborg, K., Emanuelson, U., Olsson, S., 2003. Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 58, 179-197. [CrossRef]
Torsein, M., Lindberg, A., Sandgren, C.H., Waller, K.P., Törnquist, M., Svensson, C., 2011. Risk factors for calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 99, 136-147. [CrossRef]
Ünal, N., Ertuğrul, O., Alpan, O., 2001. Growth and survival of Simmental calves raised outdoors in individual hutches. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 25, 789-795.
Wittum T.E., Salman M.D., Odde K.G., Mortimer R.G., King M.E., 1993. Causes and costs of calf mortality in Colorado beef herds participating in the National Animal Health Monitoring System. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203, 232-236.