Comparison of two methods for coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction: A finite element analysis

Objective: This study aimed to compare two different tendon grafting techniques for coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction from the data obtained using finite element analysis. Methods: Three different finite element models of the shoulder girdle were formulated using computerized tomography images: the reference model, coracoid loop technique (CLT), and drilling technique (DT) model. In all these models, forces were applied to the clavicle along three axes (x, y, and z) of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Thereafter, data regarding the loading values of the tendon grafts, loads on the coracoid base, and coracoclavicular vertical distance were measured. Results: While the reference model yielded the lowest values for all the loading conditions as well as the shortest coracoclavicular distance, the DT model demonstrated the highest values for all the loading conditions and the largest coracoclavicular distance. Conclusion: Different tendon grafting techniques may offer different loading values on both bone surface and tendon graft during coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. The drilling technique may be associated with increased loading on the tendon graft and bone surface, causing further loss of reduction and consequent complications.


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