Abdurrahman BENLİ, Özgür TOPKAYA

15 5

Küresel Ekonomik Sorunların Çin İşgücü Piyasasına Etkileri: 2008 Sonrası Dönemde Çalışma İlişkileri Ve Mevzuatta Meydana Gelen Değişimler
2008 yılında piyasaları etkilemeye başlayan küresel kriz; beraberinde küresel ekonomiyi yolundan çıkaracak sorunları da getirmiştir. Çin ekonomisi küresel iktisadi sorunlardan en az etkilenen ülkeler arasında görülmesine rağmen, ihracat odaklı büyüme stratejisi sonucu krizden etkilenmektedir. Çin’de iktisadi sistemin alt sistemi olarak çalışma ilişkileri sistemi; devletin sosyal alanlarda merkeziyetçi anlayıştan uzaklaşması sebebiyle ekonomik görünümden farklı bir durum arz etmektedir. Artan işgücü huzursuzluklarını ortadan kaldırmak amacıyla 2008 yılında yürürlüğe giren Yeni İş Sözleşmesi, İstihdamın Teşviki ve İş Uyuşmazlıkları Arabuluculuğu ve Hakemlik Yasalarına rağmen huzursuzluklar artarak devam etmektedir. Çalışmada, 2008 yılı öncesi yeni kanunların hazırlanmasına yol açan sebepler ortaya konduktan sonra, günümüzde Çin’de çalışma ilişkilerinin işleyişindeki aksaklıklar ve ortaya çıkan durum nedenleriyle tartışılmaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Çalışma İlişkileri, Küresel Ekonomik Sorunlar, Çin Çalışma İlişkileri, Çin İşgücü Piyasası
Effects of Global Economic Problems Over Chinese Labor Market: Change of Labor Relations and Labor Laws After 2008
Global economic recession that started in 2008 brought together several economic problems that caused imbalances in the global economy. Chinese economy is seen as one of the least affected countries among others. However, the country is also affected due to its export-oriented structure of the economy. As a sub-system of economic system, labor relations system of Chine reflect a different situation. Although the government enacted several laws, namely Employment Contract Law, Employment Promotion Law and Labour Disputes Mediation and Arbitration Law in 2008 in order to reduce the increasing number of labour disputes, the incidents still continue. The study aims to put forward the reasons as to why above mentioned laws were introduced and then try to discuss ill functioning of industrial relations system of China in recent years.
Keywords: Labor Relations, Global Economic Issues, Chinese Labor Relations, Chinese Labour Market.

Kaynakça

CHAN, Chris King-Chi, Pun Ngai, Jenny Chan (2010) “The Role of the State, Labour Policy and Migrant Workers’ Struggles in Globalized China”, Globalization and Labour in China and India, Impacts and Responses, Ed. Paul Bowles and John Harriss, Palgrave Macmillian, UK, p. 45-63.

CHAN, G. (2012) “Chinas Response to the Global Financial Crisis and its Regional Leadership in East Asia”, Asia Eur J, 9 Springer, p. 197-209.

CHAN, J. (2009) “Meaningful Progress or Illusory Reform? Analyzing China’s Labor Contract Law”, New Labor Forum, 18 (2), Spring, p. 43-51.

China Labor Bulletin (2012) “Revisions to China’s Labour Contract

Law Focus on Abuse of Employment Agency System”, China Labor Bulletin, 28 June 2012, Erişim Tarihi: 23 Ocak 2013. http://www.clb. org.hk/en/node/110086.

China Statistics Bureau (2012) “Average Wage of Employed Persons in Urban Units and Related Indices”, China Statistics Yearbook 2012, Employment and Wages, http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2012/ indexeh.htm , Erişim Tarihi: 5 Mart 2013.

China Statistics Bureau (2012) “Total Value of Imports and Exports”, China Statistical Yearbook 2012, Erişim Tarihi: 16 Ocak 2013.

China Statistics Bureau (2012) “4-1 Employment”, China Statistical

Yearbook 2012, Erişim Tarihi: 16 Ocak 2013.

CONERLY, B. (2012) “International Economic Forecast 20122013”, Forbes, April 24, 2012, http://www.forbes.com /sites/ billconerly/2012/04/24/international-economic-forecast-2012-2013/ , Erişim Tarihi: 16 Ocak 2013.

COOKE, Fang L. (2009) “The Enactment of Three New Labour Laws in China: Unintended Consequences and the Emergence of ‘New’ Actors in Employment Relations”, A Keynote Speech for the Regulating for Decent Work: Innovative Regulation as a Response to Globalization, Conference of the Regulating for Decent Work Network, International Labor Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 8-10 July 2009, p.1-47.

CRAIGWELL, R., Troy Lorde, Winston Moore (2013) “Fiscal Policy and the Duration of Financial Crises”, Applied Economics, 45:6, 2013, p. 793-801

DRYSDALE, P. (2012) “Can Asia Help Power the Global Recovery?”, Think Tank 20: New Challenges for the Global Economy, New Uncertainties for the G-20, June 2012, p. 9-13.

Eurostat Veri Tabanı, Erişim Tarihi: 17 Ocak 2013.

FRİEDMAN, E., and Ching Kwan L. (2010) “Remaking the World of Chinese Labour: A 30-Year Retrospective”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 48:3, Blackwell Publishing Ltd/London School of Economics, September, p. 507-533.

GALLAGHER, Mary E., Ching Kwan Lee, and Sarosh Kuruvilla (2011) “Introduction and Argument”, From Iron Rice Bowl to Informalization, Ed. Sarosh Kuruvilla, Ching Kwan Lee and Mary E. Gallagher, Cornell University, USA, p. 1-17.

JI MA (2012) “The Settlement of Labor Disputes Through Mediation and Arbitration in China”, Study Report, Peking University School of Transnational Law, Final Draft July 9, p.1-26.

KNIGHT, J. and Lina Song (2005) Towards a Labour Market in China, Oxford University Press, New York, p. 3.

Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China (2008) January 1, Erişim Tarihi: 23 Ocak 2013, http://www.fdi.gov.cn/ pub/FDI_EN/Laws/GeneralLawsandRegulations/Basic Laws/ P020070831 6013 80007924.pdf

LEE, Ching K. and Yelizavetta Kofman (2012) “The Politics of Precarity: Views Beyond the United States”, Work and Occupations 39, 4, 2012, p. 388-408.

LEE, Ching Kwan (2012) “Durable Subordination: Chinese Labour Regime through a South Korean Lens”, East Asian Capitalism: Diversity, Continuity, and Change, Oxford University Press, Ed. Andrew Walter, Xiaoke Zhang, 2012, p. 110-131.

LEUNG, Susan (2012) “China’s Labor Contract System from Planned to Market Economy”, Journal of Law, Ethics and Intellectual Property, Volume 3, Issue 1, p. 1-12.

LI, Min, Chunyang Zhang, Simon Lloyd D. Restubog, Cuilong Huang (2012) “The Role of Labor Contract in the Psychological Contract Dynamics: Evidence from Chinese Migrant Workers in the Construction Industry”, Proceedings of the 16th ILERA World Congress, Philadelphia, 4-6 July 2012, p. 1- 15.

MA, Z. (2011) “Industrial Relations in China: A Review Based on a Six-party Model”, International Labour Review, Vol. 150, No. 1-2, p. 145-162.

PRINGLE, T. and Simon Clarke (2010) The Challenge of Transition, Trade Unions in Russia, China and Vietnam, Palgrave Macmillan, U.K., p. 121.

The People’s Bank of China (2012) “Official Foreign Exchange Reserves Stood at US$3.31 Trillion”, Financial Statistics, http://www. pbc.gov.cn/ publish/english/955/2013/ 20130114164249631487923/ 201301141642 49631487923_.html , Erişim Tarihi: 17 Ocak 2013.

The World Bank (2013) Global Economic Prospects 2013, Assuring

Growth over The Medium Term, Volume: 6, Washington, January 2013, p. 21.

TRAUB-MERZ, R. (2011) “Wage Strikes and Trade Unions in China-End of the Low-wage Policy?”, International Policy Analysis, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Berlin Germany, p. 1-13.

United Nations (2013) “World Economic Situation and Prospects 2013”, Global Outlook, Pre-Release, Chapter 1, Newyork 2013, p. 1.

WANG, H., Richard P. Appelbaum, Francesca Degiuli, Nelson Lichtenstein (2009) “China’s New Contract Law: Is China Moving

Towards Increased Power for Workers?”, Third World Quarterly, 30: 3, p. 485-501. WARNER, M. and Ying Zhu (2010) “Labour and Management in the People’s Republic of China: Seeking the ‘Harmonious Society’, Asia Pacific Business Review, 16: 3, p. 285-298.

WEBBER, M. and Zhu Ying (2007) “Primitive Accumulation, Transition and Unemployment in China”, Unemployment in China, Economy, Human Resources and Labour Markets, Ed. Grace O.M.

Lee, Malcolm Warner, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, London and New York, p. 17-35. WING, Kam C. and Li Zhang (1999) “The Hukou System and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Processes and Changes”, China Quarterly, p. 818-855.

World Bank Veri Tabanı, Erişim Tarihi: 17 Ocak 2013

ZAHN, R. (2013) “European Enlargement and the Economic Crisis: Impact and Lasting Effects”, Working Paper 2013.01, European Trade Union Institute, Brussels, p. 1-24.