Ksenophon’un Oikonomikos adlı eserinde evlilik ve kadına yaklaşım

Eski Yunan toplumunun en küçük birimi olan oikos’un (evin) temeli evlilik ile atılırdı. Erkekler çoğunlukla politika, askerlik ya da tarım işleri ile uğraşırken, kadın daha çok oikos sınırları içinde varlığını sürdürmüş, evlilik yoluyla oikos’un devamlılığının bir parçası olan kadının yegâne görevi, çocuk doğurarak soyun devamının sağlanması olmuştur. Kadına salt üreme odaklı yaklaşan bu bakış açısı Eski Yunan’da evlilik kurumunun ve aile yaşamının da çerçevesini belirlemiştir. Ancak M.Ö.4.yy.da Yunan toplumunda yaşanan politik ve ekonomik değişimlerin oikos yaşamı üzerinde yarattığı etkiler, oikos içinde kadının etkinliğini arttırarak kadını evin idaresinin ayrılmaz bir parçası yapmıştır. Bu yüzyılda edebi eserlerde oikos idaresi, evlilik ilişkisi ve kadınlar üzerine öncesine oranla artan bir ilginin olduğu gözlemlenir. Bu eserlerden en önemlisi olan Ksenophon’un "Oikonomikos" adlı eseri, kadını salt üreme odaklı gören bakıştan sıyrılarak, onu tüm görev ve sorumluluklarıyla oikos içindeki en önemli unsur haline getirmiştir. Kadını oikos üretiminin bir parçası olarak gören yaklaşımıyla Ksenophon evliliği de oikos’un kalkınmasını etkileyen yegâne ilişki olarak belirlemiştir. Bu çalışmada Ksenophon’un Oikonomikos adlı eserinde, evlilik ilişkisinin oikos açısından değerini ortaya koyan, Iskhomakhos ve karısı arasında geçen diyalog (Oec.. VII-X) ayrıntılı olarak ele alınacak ve yazarın evliliğe yaklaşımı üzerinden kadına yaklaşımı ortaya koyulmaya çalışılacaktır. Bu doğrultuda varsa yazarın çağındaki edebi gelenekle etkileşiminin gösterilmesi amaçlanmaktadır
Anahtar Kelimeler:

Ksenophon, Oikonomikos, Oikos, Evlilik

The Approach Of Xenophon Towards Woman AndMarrıage In The Oeconomıcus

The Approach Of Xenophon Towards Woman And Marrıage In The Oeconomıcus The base of the smallest unit of the antique Greek community, the oikos (house) was marriage. Men were mainly occupied with politics, army or agriculture, whereas women lived within the boundaries of the oikos. The main duty of the women, as a part of the continuity of the oikos through marriage, was to give birth and sustain the community through new generations. This attitude to the women based on breeding has drawn the framework of the institution of marriage and the family life. However the political and economic changes in the Greek community at the 4th century BC affected the oikos by increasing the effectiveness of the women and made them the main actor of house management. In this century an increasing interest is observed on the literary works about the management of oikos, marriage relationships and women. The most important one among such works, Ksenephon’s “Oikonomikos” has distinguished women from the role of breeding to the most important actor in the oikos with all their duties and responsibilities. Attributing women with the production within the oikos, Ksenephon defined marriage as the sole relationship that affected the development of oikos. In this paper the dialog between Iskhomakhos and his wife (Oec.. VII-X) that appreciates the value of marriage within oikos in Ksenophon’s work Oikonomikos, will be dealt with in detail and the attitude of the author towards women through marriage will be tried to be made clear. In this it is aimed to show the author’s interactivity with his age g literary legacies on this subject whether it exists

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