Güvenlik faaliyetlerinde özelleştirme: Paralı askerler mi? özel askeri birlikler mi?

Tarih boyunca, farklı savunma sistemleri kullanan ülkeler için, güvenlik faaliyetlerinde dış kaynaktan tedarik yöntemi (outsourcing) son yıllarda giderek ağırlığını artırmaktadır. Uluslararası kriz bölgelerinde faaliyet gösteren birçok ülke, problemli bölgelerde ulusal ve uluslararası kamuoyunun tepkisini azaltmak amacıyla güvenlik görevlerinin bir kısmını yaptıkları sözleşmelerle özel firmalara devretmektedirler. Geçmişte paralı asker, lejyoner vb. isimlerle anılan ancak günümüzde kendilerini özel askeri firma veya özel askeri yükleniciler gibi isimlerle adlandıran bu yeni aktörler, dünya genelinde 100 milyar dolarlarla ifade edilen yıllık ciroya ve yüzbinleri geçen sayıda çalışana ulaşmışlardır. Özel askeri firmaların artan oranda kullanımı; hukuki statüleri, sözleşme esasları, angajman kuralları ve uluslararası ilişkilerdeki rolleri gibi konulardaki tartışmaları da beraberinde getirmektedir. Bu çalışmada özel askeri firmalarla ilgili tarihsel süreç, hukuki boyut, uygulama örnekleri ve yakın gelecekte firmalar konusunda ortaya çıkması muhtemel durumlar tartışılmaya çalışılmıştır.

Outsourcing security activities: Mercenaries or private military companies?

Countries have used different types of defense planning policies; depend on their threats during history. After 1990s, outsourcing some certain types of security needs from private companies has became a more useful way to use force, especially in the uncertain areas of war. Some countries, who execute operations in the problematic areas of the world use contractors to suppress the national or international criticisms. This new sector, which were called “mercenaries” during the history and nowadays call themselves as private military firms, companies or contractors, have reached the total turnover of 100 Billion Dollars and more than hundred thousand of employees as well. Recent increase of using private military firms also increased the criticism on their legal status, contract bases, engagement rules and their role over international relations also increased. In this study, the historical perspective of private military firms, their legal status, some recent samples and the possible problem areas have been discussed.

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Uluslararası Güvenlik ve Terörizm Dergisi
  • ISSN: 1309-2022
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 2 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 2010

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