Öz Natural herbal products contain different compounds that can modulate immune and inflammatory diseases. This investigation aimed to examine the influence of Pistacia atlantica aqueous extract on cellular and humoral immunity in mice following the exposure to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). For this purpose, male BALB/c mice (n = 40) were randomly assigned into 4 equivalent groups. The animals received 1 × 109 SRBCs in complete Freund?s adjuvant (CFA) intraperitoneally 3 times with two-week intervals. Five days after the final injection, blood samples were taken from the animals. Additionally, 1 × 109 SRBCs were also injected into the mice?s left hind footpad 48 h before the blood collection. Three groups of mice received various oral doses of the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 52 consecutive days after the study onset. Measurements were performed on the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses, splenocytes? ability to uptake neutral red, respiratory burst, and cell viability. The mice receiving Pistacia atlantica in all concentrations displayed significantly low delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control animals. The treated mice also presented a dose-dependent, significantly lower average anti-SRBC titer than that in the control animals. IL-17 and IL-10 cytokine levels respectively decreased and increased significantly in the mice that received Pistacia atlantica compared to the control group. Splenocyte proliferation and respiratory burst declined significantly in mice treated with Pistacia atlantica as opposed to the normal control group but phagocytosis ability was significantly decreased. The immunomodulatory impacts of Pistacia atlantica might be partially caused by immunity diversion from proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 into antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10.
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