This study presents the development and construction of the 16-item Bidirectional Spirituality Scale (BSS), which is based on the theory of vertical and horizontal spirituality. Vertical spirituality focuses on that involving one’s relationship with God, whereas horizontal spirituality is concerned with one’s relations with people and attunement to meaning and purpose. Using data from 239 USA participants, exploratory factor analysis has produced three factors: vertical spirituality (VS; 8 items); horizontal spirituality-others (HS-O; 4 items); and horizontal spirituality-existential (HS-E; 4 items). A partial confirmatory factor analysis has confirmed the three-factor model. For research purposes, HS-O and HS-E can be combined to produce an 8-item horizontal spirituality scale to complement the 8-item VS scale. Further analyses have found preliminary evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity. Because of its sound psychometric properties, the BSS appears to be a useful, brief instrument for discriminating both religious and non-religious spirituality.
Bu çalışmada, dikey ve yatay maneviyat teorisine dayanan 16 maddelik İki Yönlü Maneviyat Ölçeğinin geliştirilmesini sunulmaktadır. Dikey maneviyat, kişinin Tanrı ile ilişkisine odaklanırken, yatay maneviyat, birinin insanlarla ilişkileri ve anlam ve amaçlara uyumu ile ilgilidir. 239 ABD’li katılımcılarından gelen veriler kullanarak yapılan açımlayıcı faktör analizinde üç faktör üretmiştir: dikey maneviyat (8 madde); yatay maneviyat-diğerleri (4 madde); ve yatay maneviyat-varoluşsal (4 madde). Kısmi bir doğrulayıcı faktör analizinde, üç faktörlü model doğrulanmıştır. Araştırma amaçları için, yatay maneviyat-diğerleri ve yatay maneviyat-varoluşsal alt ölçekleri, 8 maddelik Dikey Maneviyat Ölçeğini tamamlamak için 8 maddelik bir yatay maneviyat ölçeği oluşturmak için birleştirilebilmektedir. Sağlam psikometrik özelliklerinden dolayı İki Yönlü Maneviyat Ölçeği, hem dini hem de dini olmayan maneviyatı ayırt etmek için kısa ve kullanışlı bir araç olarak görülmektedir
Beck, A.T., Ward, C.M., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory formeasuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.
Bufford, R. K., Paloutzian, R. F., & Ellison, C. W. (1991). Norms for the Spiritual Well-Being Scale. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 19, 56-70.
Daaleman, T. P., & Frey, B. B. (2004). The spirituality index of well-being: A new instrument for health-related quality of life research. Annals of Family Medicine, 2, 499–503.
Davis, D. E., Rice, K., Hook, J. N., Van Tongeren, D. R., DeBlaere, C., Choe, E., & Worthington, Jr., E. L. (2015). Development of the Sources of Spirituality Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 503–513.
Delaney, C. (2005). The Spirituality Scale development and psychometric testing of a holistic instrument to assess the human spiritual dimension. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 23, 145-167.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.
Ekşi, H., & Kardaş, S. (2017). Spiritual well-being: Scale development and validation. Spiritual Psychology and Counseling, 2, 73–88.
Fang, C. K, Li, P. Y., Lai, M. L., Lin, M. H., Bridge, D. T., & Chen, H. W. (2011). Establishing a “physician’s spiritual well-being scale” and testing its reliability and validity. Journal of Medical Ethics, 37, 6-12.
Fisher, J. W. (1998). Spiritual health: Its nature, and place in the school curriculum (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Gignac, G. E. (2009). Partial confirmatory factor analysis: Described and illustrated on the NEOPI- R. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 40-47.
Gomez, R., & Fisher, J. W. (2003). Domains of spiritual well-being and development and validation of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1975–1991.
Gorsuch, R.L., & McPherson, S.E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/I-revised and singleitem scales. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 348-354.
Hood, R. W., Jr., Hill, P. C., & Spilka, B. (2009). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (4th ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Hood, R.W., Jr., & Williamson, W.P. (2000). An empirical test of the unity thesis: The structure of mystical descriptors in various faith samples. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 19(3), 232-244.
James, W. (1982). The varieties of religious experience. New York: Penguin. (Original work published in 1902)
Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2009). Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Kelloway, E. K. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kohls, N., Hack, A., & Walach, H. (2008). Measuring the unmeasureable to tickin boxes and actually opening Pandora’s box? Mixed methods research as a useful tool for investigating exceptional human experiences. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 30, 155-187.
Ledbetter, M. F., Smith, L. A., Fischer, J. D., Vosler-Hunter, W. L., & Chew, G. P. (1991). An evaluation of the construct validity of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale: A confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 19(1), 94-102.
Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155.
Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487-495.
Paloutzian, R. F., & Ellison, C. W. (1982). Loneliness, spiritual well-being and the quality of life. In L. A. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy (pp. 224–237). New York: Wiley.
Peterman, A. H., Fitchett, G., Brady, M. J., Hernandez, L., & Cella, D. (2002). Measuring spiritual well-being in people with cancer: The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy- Spiritual Well-Being scale (FACIT-Sp). Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 49–58.
Piedmont, R. L. (1999). Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality, 67, 985-1014.
Piotrowski, J., Skrzypińksa, K., & Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. (2013). The Scale of Spiritual Transcendence: Construction and validation. Annals of Psychology, 16, 469-485.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078.
Scott, E. L., Agresti, A. A., & Fitchett, G. (1998). Factor analysis of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and its clinical utility with psychiatric inpatients. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 314-321.
Streib, H., & Hood, R. W., Jr. (2016). Understanding spirituality: Conceptual considerations. In H. Streib & R. W. Hood, Jr. (Eds.), Semantics and psychology of spirituality: A cross-cultural analysis (pp. 3-17). New York: Springer.
Vivat, B., Young, T., Efficace, F., Sigurdadóttir, V., Arraras, J. I., Åsgeirsdóttir, G. H., … the EORTC Quality of Life Group. (2013). Cross-cultural development of the EORTC QLB-SWB36: A stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being for palliative care patients with cancer. Palliative Medicine, 27, 457–469.
Williamson, W. P., & Hood, R. W., Jr. (2016). Psychology and spiritual transformation in a substance abuse program: The Lazarus Project. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
World Health Organization. (2002). WHOQOL Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs (SRPB) Field-Test instrument. Geneva: Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence,
World Health Organization. Online available at www.who.int/mental_health/media/en/622.pdf
Zinnbauer, B. J., & Pargament, K. I. (2005). Religiousness and spirituality. In C. L. Park & R. F. Paloutzian (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 21-42).