The Bidirectional Spirituality Scale: Construction and Initial Evidence for Validity

This study presents the development and construction of the 16-item Bidirectional Spirituality Scale (BSS), which is based on the theory of vertical and horizontal spirituality. Vertical spirituality focuses on that involving one’s relationship with God, whereas horizontal spirituality is concerned with one’s relations with people and attunement to meaning and purpose. Using data from 239 USA participants, exploratory factor analysis has produced three factors: vertical spirituality (VS; 8 items); horizontal spirituality-others (HS-O; 4 items); and horizontal spirituality-existential (HS-E; 4 items). A partial confirmatory factor analysis has confirmed the three-factor model. For research purposes, HS-O and HS-E can be combined to produce an 8-item horizontal spirituality scale to complement the 8-item VS scale. Further analyses have found preliminary evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity. Because of its sound psychometric properties, the BSS appears to be a useful, brief instrument for discriminating both religious and non-religious spirituality.

İki Yönlü Maneviyat Ölçeği: Geliştirme Süreci ve Geçerliliğe İlişkin İlk Kanıtlar

Bu çalışmada, dikey ve yatay maneviyat teorisine dayanan 16 maddelik İki Yönlü Maneviyat Ölçeğinin geliştirilmesini sunulmaktadır. Dikey maneviyat, kişinin Tanrı ile ilişkisine odaklanırken, yatay maneviyat, birinin insanlarla ilişkileri ve anlam ve amaçlara uyumu ile ilgilidir. 239 ABD’li katılımcılarından gelen veriler kullanarak yapılan açımlayıcı faktör analizinde üç faktör üretmiştir: dikey maneviyat (8 madde); yatay maneviyat-diğerleri (4 madde); ve yatay maneviyat-varoluşsal (4 madde). Kısmi bir doğrulayıcı faktör analizinde, üç faktörlü model doğrulanmıştır. Araştırma amaçları için, yatay maneviyat-diğerleri ve yatay maneviyat-varoluşsal alt ölçekleri, 8 maddelik Dikey Maneviyat Ölçeğini tamamlamak için 8 maddelik bir yatay maneviyat ölçeği oluşturmak için birleştirilebilmektedir. Sağlam psikometrik özelliklerinden dolayı İki Yönlü Maneviyat Ölçeği, hem dini hem de dini olmayan maneviyatı ayırt etmek için kısa ve kullanışlı bir araç olarak görülmektedir

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