Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and multiple sclerosis are autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system that are characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. Clinical symptoms can be aggravated by fever or concomitant infection. Malaria can also demonstrate neurological symptoms and develop into cerebral malaria, which can lead to severe neurological disability. The present patient had a diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax infection and displayed neurological symptoms and fever. After exclusion of cerebral malaria and other infectious diseases, the patient had a final diagnosis of CIS and the appropriate treatment was initiated. This report is a description of this rare presentation
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