Platform Ekonomisi Çalışması: İş Hukukunda Yarattığı Sorunlar Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme

“Kalabalık çalışma” ve “uygulamalar aracılığıyla talep üzerine çalışma” şeklinde iki temel türü olan çevrimiçi platform çalışmaları, genellikle işgücü talebi ve arzının eşleşmesini sağlayan çevrimiçi platformlar aracılığıyla yürütülen geçici, esnek ve kısa vadeli çalışma ilişkilerini ifade etmektedir. Aslında bu çalışmalar, tam zamanlı ve belirsiz süreli iş sözleşmeleri yapmak yerine, işin yürütümünün atipik istihdam biçimleri ve bağımsız olduğu iddia olunan veya gerçekten öyle olan çalışma ilişkileri yoluyla gerçekleştirilmesine ilişkin işgücü piyasalarındaki daha genel eğilimin yakın zamandaki yansımalarından biri olarak kabul edilmektedir. Atipik istihdam biçimlerinin ve bu bağlamda platform temelli çalışmaların sanayileşmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde giderek yaygınlaşması, çalışanların iş hukukuna ilişkin temel haklardan yararlanmaları konusunda bazı zorluklara yol açmaktadır. Bu makale, çalışanların yasal statüsü, çalışma koşulları, toplu iş hukukuna ilişkin haklar gibi konularda ortaya çıkan risk ve zorluklardan bazılarını ve bunlara karşı karşılaştırmalı hukukta benimsenen ve literatürde öne sürülen çözümleri incelemektedir.

The Platform Economy Work: An Assessment of Its Challenges in Labour Law

The online platform-based works, include mainly two forms of work named “crowdwork” and “work-on-demand via the app”, generally imply temporary, flexible, and short term working relations executed through online platforms that enable the matching of labour demand and supply. Indeed, these works are regarded as one of the recent reflections of the more general trend in labour markets to carry out work through atypical forms of employment and allegedly or genuinely independent working relationships rather than making full-time and indefinite-term employment contracts. The increasing spread of atypical forms of employment and, in this context, platform-based works in industrialized and developing countries has led to some difficulties for workers in enjoying basic labour law rights. This article examines some of those risks and challenges that arise in issues such as the legal status of employees, working conditions, collective labour rights, and the solutions adopted in comparative law and suggested in the literature.

Kaynakça

• Aloisi, Antonio: Negotiating the Digital Transformation of Work: Non-Standard Workers’ Voice, Collective Rights and Mobilisation Practices in the Platform Economy, EUI Working Paper MWP 2019/3, 1-41.

• Alp, Mustafa: “Tele Çalışma (Uzaktan Çalışma)”, Prof. Dr. Sarper Süzek’e Armağan, 1, İstanbul 2011, 795-854.

• Asadullah, Ahmad; Faik, Isam; and Kankanhalli, Atreyi, “Digital Platforms: A Review and Future Directions” PACIS 2018 Proceedings, 2018, 248.

• Aykaç, Hande Bahar: “The Distinction Between the Employee and The Self-Employed: The Case of Professional Drivers”, Law and Justice Review, Year 11, Issue 21, January 2021, 53-98.

• Aykaç, Hande Bahar: “Çevrimiçi Uygulamalar Aracılığı ile Talep Üzerine Çalışma İş Modelinde İşçi Kavramının Türk Hukuku Bakımından Değerlendirilmesi: Uber Şoförleri Örneği”, Prof. Dr. Münir Ekonomi 85. Yaş günü Armağanı Sempozyumu 2018. (Yayın Aşamasında)

• Barzilay, Arianne Renan: “Discrimination without Discriminating: Learned Gender Inequality in the Labor Market and Gig Economy”, 28 Cornell J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 545 (2018-2019).

• Başterzi, Süleyman: “Avukatla Bağıtlanan Sözleşmenin Hukuki Niteliği, İş Sözleşmesinin Vekalet ve Diğer İşgörme Sözleşmelerinden Ayrılması”, SİCİL, 17, Mart 2010, 175-198.

• Berg J, Marianne F., Harmon E., Rani U., Silberman, M.S., Digital Labor Platforms and the Future of Work, Towards Decent Work in the Online World, ILO, Geneva 2018.

• Busch ve diğer yazarlar: “The Rise of The Platform Economy: A New Challenge for EU Consumer Law”, 5 J. Eur. Consumer & Mkt. L. 3 (2016).

• Cherry, Miriam A: “Taxonomy of Virtual Work”, Georgia Law Review, Vol.45 (4), 2011, 951-1014.

• Cherry, Miriam A: “Beyond Misclassification: The Digital Transformation of Work”, 37 Comp. Lab. L. & Pol’y J. 577, 2016. (2016)

• Cherry, Miriam A: “The Global Dimensions of Virtual Work”, 54. St. Louis U L.J. 471, 2010. (Virtual Work)

• Civan, Orhan Ersun: “İş Hukukunda Uzaktan Çalışma (Evde Çalışma/Tele Çalışma)”, İş Hukuku ve Sosyal Güvenlik Hukuku Dergisi, Sayı. 26, 2010, 525-573.

• Countouris, Nicola: Defining and Regulating Work Regulations for the Future of Work, ILO, Geneva, Şubat 2019.

• Çelik, Nuri; Caniklioğlu, Nurşen & Canbolat, Talat: İş Hukuku Dersleri, İstanbul 2018.

• Daubler, Wolfgang: “Working People in Germany”, 21 Comp. Lab. L. & Pol’y J. 77 (1999).

• Davidov, Guy: Guest Post: The Status of Uber Drivers- Part 1: Some Preliminary Questions, https://onlabor.org/guest-post-the-status-of-uber-drivers-part-1-some-preliminary-questions/,17 Mayis 2016. (2016a)

• Davidov, Guy: Guest Post: The Status of Uber Drivers- Part 2: A Purposive Approach https://onlabor.org/guest-post-the-status-ofuber-drivers-part-2-a-purposive-approach/, 19 Mayis 2016. (2016b)

• Davidov, Guy: Guest Post: The Status of Uber Drivers- Part 3: Applying the Tests, https:// onlabor.org/guest-post-the-status-of-uberdrivers-part-3-applying-the-tests/, 24 Mayis 2016. (2016c)

• De Stefano, Valerio: “The Rise of the Just-inTime Workforce: On-demand Work, Crowd Work and Labor Protection in the ‘Gig Economy’ ”, 37 Comp. Lab. L. & Pol’y J.471, 2016.

• De Stefano, Valerio & Aloisi Antonio: Fundamental Labour Rights, Platform Work and Human- Rights Protection of Non-Standard Workers, Bocconi Legal Studies Research Paper Series Number 1, Şubat 2018, 1-22. (Platform Work)

• De Stefano, Valerio & Aloisi Antonio: European Legal Framework For “Digital Labour Platforms”, European Union, 2018, 1-66. (Digital Labour Platforms)

• Doğan, Sevil: İş Sözleşmesinde Bağımlılık Unsuru (Atipik İş İlişkileri Bakımından Değerlendirilmesi), Seçkin Yayınevi, Ankara 2016.

• Doğan Yenisey, Kübra: İş Hukukunda İşyeri ve İşletme. İstanbul 2007.

• Edelman, Benjamin, Michael Luca, and Dan Svirsky: “Racial Discrimination in the Sharing Economy: Evidence from a Field Experiment”, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 9 (2), 2017, 1-22.

• Ekonomi, Münir: Ferdi İş Hukuku, İstanbul 1987.

• Ekonomi, Münir: “Türk Endüstri İlişkileri Sisteminde Yeni Arayışlar ve Çözümler”, Kamu-İş, 1988, 11-25.

• Estlund, Cynthia: Why Flexibility is Not Just a Trope, Mayıs 2018, https://onlabor.org/whyflexibility-is-not-just-a-trope/

• Finkin, Matthew W.: Introduction, 21 Comp Lab. L. & Pol.’y J. 4 (1999).

• Freedland, M. ve Prassl J.: Employees, Workers and The ‘Sharing Economy’, Changing Practices and Changing Concepts in the United Kingdom, University of Oxford, Legal Research Paper Series, Paper No:19/2017, Mart 2017, 1-19.

• Galperin, Hernan and Greppi, Catrihel, “Geographical Discrimination in the Gig Economy”, (February 23, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2922874 or http:// dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2922874

• Gramano, Elena: “The New Legal Status of Independent contractors in the Italian legal system”, 3 Temmuz Dispatch No. 9, the Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal, 2018, https://cllpj.law.illinois.edu/dispatches.

• Güzel, Ali: “Fabrika’dan İnternet’e İşçi Kavramı ve Özellikle Hizmet Sözleşmesinin Bağımlılık Unsuru Üzerine Bir Deneme”, Kamu İş, Sayı 2, 1997, http://www.kamu-is.org.tr/ pdf/426.pdf

• Harris, Seth D. & Krueger, Alan B.: A Proposal for Modernizing Labor Laws For Twenty-First-Century Work: “The Independent Worker”, The Hamilton Project, Discussion Paper, 2015-10, 2-36.

• Heeks, Richard: “Decent Work and the Digital Gig Economy: A Developing Country Perspective on Employment Impacts and Standards in Online Outsourcing” (August 2, 2017). Development Informatics Working Paper no. 71, 2017, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn. com/abstract=3431033 or http://dx.doi. org/10.2139/ssrn.3431033

• Hotvedt, Marianne Jenum: “The Contract Of Employment Test Renewed A Scandinavian Approach to Platform Work”, Spanish Labour Law and Employment Relations Journal, Vol.7, No.1-2, Kasım 2018, 56-74.

• Johnston, Hannah & Kazlauskas, Chris Land: Organizing On-Demand: Representation, Voice, and Collective Bargaining in the Gig Economy, Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 94, ILO, Geneva, 2018.

• Kessler, Sarah: Handy is Quietly Lobbying State Lawmakers to Declare its Workers Aren’t Employees, https://work.qz.com/1240997/ handy-is-trying-to-change-labor-law-in-eight-states/, 2018.

• Kilhoffer, Z., Lenaerts K. ve Beblavy M: The Platform Economy and Industrial Relations, Applying the Old Framework to the New Reality, CEPS Research Report, 2017/12, 1-39.

• Kountouris, Nicola: “The Concept of Worker in European Labour Law: Fragmentation, Autonomy and Scope”, Industrial Law Journal, 2017.

• Kuek S.C, Paradi-Guilford C., Fayomi T., Imaizumi S., Ipeiretois P., Pina P. ve Singh M., The Global Opportunity in Online Sourcing, Washington DC, 2015.

• Leong N. ve Belzer A.: “The New Public Accomodations: Race Discrimination in the Platform Economy”, 105 Geo. L.J. 1271 (2016- 2017).

• Popescu G.H, Petrescu I. E. ve Matilda Sabie O: “Algorithmic Labor in the Platform Economy: Digital Infrastructures, Job Quality, and Workplace Surveillance”, Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 13/2018, 74-79.

• Prassl, Jeremias; Risak, Martin: “Uber, Taskrabbit, and Co.: Platforms as Employers -Rethinking the Legal Analysis of Crowdwork”, 37 Comp. Lab. L. & Pol’y J, 2016, 619- 652.

• Ranchordas, Sofia: Online Reputation and the Regulation of Information Asymmetries in the Platform Economy, University of Groningen Faculty of Law Research Paper Series, No. 2/2018.

• Risak, Martin ve Dullinger Thomas: ‘The Concept of Worker in EU Law’ Status Quo and Potential For Change, Bruksel 2018.

• Rogers, Brishen: “Employment Rights in the Platform Economy: Getting Back to Basics”, 10 HARV. L. & POL’y REV. 479 (2016).

• Rosenblat, Alex; Stark, Luke: “Algorithmic Labor and Information Asymmetries: A Case of Uber’s Drivers”, International Journal Of Communication, 10, 27, 2015. SSRN: https:// ssrn.com/abstract=2686227 veya http://dx. doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2686227

• Rubiano, Camilo: “Precarious Workers and Access to Collective Bargaining: What Are the Legal Obstacles?”, Meeting the Challenge of Precarious Work: A Workers’ Agenda, 5(1), International Journal of Labour Research, 2013, 133-152.

• Sachs, Benjamin: What the UK Decision Implies For Uber Drivers in the US, 28 Ekim 2016, https://onlabor.org/what-the-uk-decisionimplies-for-uber-drivers-in-the-u-s/, (2016)

• Sachs, Benjamin: New DOL Guidance on Employee Status: News for Uber or Lyft?, 15 Temmuz 2015, https://onlabor.org/ new-dol-guidance-on-employee-sta - tus-news-for-uber-or-lyft/ (2015a)

• Sachs, Benjamin: Uber: Employee Status and “Flexibility”, 25 Eylül 2015, https://onlabor. org/uber-employee-status-and-flexibility/ (2015b)

• Sachs, Benjamin: “Do We Need an “Independent Worker” Category?, ONLABOR, 8 Aralık 2015, https://onlabor.org/do-we-need-an-independent-wor ker- categor y/ (2015c)

• Sachs, Benjamin: Uber and Lyft: Customer Reviews and Right-to-Control, ONLABOR, (20 Mayıs) https://onlabor.org/uber-and-lyft-customer-reviews-and-the-right-to-control/, (2015e)

• Sachs, Benjamin: Looks Like the Gig is Up For Uber in California, ONLABOR, 1 Mayıs 2018, https://onlabor.org/looks-like-the-gig-isup-for-uber-in-california/

• Schmidt, F.A: Digital Labour Markets in the Platform Economy, Mapping the Political Challenges of Crowd Work And Gig Work, Publisher: Division for Economic and Social Policy, 2017, 1-28.

• Schor, J./Attwood-Charles, W./Cansoy, M./ Ladegaard, I./Wengronowitz, R: “Dependence and Precarity in the Platform Economy”, Theory and Society (Ağustos 2020). https:// doi.org/10.1007/s11186-020-09408-y

• Sur, Melda: İş Hukuku Toplu İlişkiler, Turhan Kitabevi, Ankara 2020.

• Sur, Melda: “Ferdi İş İlişkisinin Kurulması ve İşin Düzenlenmesi” Yargıtayın İş Hukukuna İlişkin 1999 Yılı Kararlarının Değerlendirilmesi, İstanbul 2001, 12-14.

• Süzek, Sarper: İş Hukuku, Yenilenmiş 19. Baskı, İstanbul 2020.

• Tuncay, Can: “İş İlişkisinin Kurulması, Hükümleri ve İşin Düzenlenmesi”, Yargıtayın İş Hukuku ve Sosyal Güvenlik Hukuku Kararlarının Değerlendirilmesi 2011, Ankara 2013, 1-98.

• Vandaele, Kurt: Will Trade Unions Survive in the Platform Economy? Emerging Patterns of Platform Workers’ Collective Voice and Representation in Europe (June 19, 2018). ETUI Research Paper - Working Paper 2018.05, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3198546 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ ssrn.3198546

• Waas, Bernd: “The New Legal Status of Independent Contractors: Some Comments From a German Perspective”, 39 Comp. Lab. L. & Pol.y J. 2018, 627-633.

• Weil, David: The Fissured Workplace, Harvard University Press, 2014.

• Weinberg, Jon: Gig News: Uber Successfully Pursuing State Legislation on Independent Contractor Status, 11 Aralık, https://onlabor.org/gig-news-uber-successfully-pursuing-state-legislation-on-independent-contractor-status/, 2015.

• Yayvak Namlı, İrem: “Dijital Çağ’da Yeni Bir Çalışma İlişkisi Modeli: Crowdworking”, Sicil Dergisi, S:42, 2019, 128-143.

Kaynak Göster