Perinephric abscess is an uncommon infection in children, but it is usually caused by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an uncommon cause of perinephric abscess or serious bacterial infections beyond the neonatal period. Comorbid conditions such as diabetes mellitus and immunosuppression can increase the risk of GBS invasive disease. We describe a 10-year-old female who presented with 1-month of right-sided flank pain and swelling with ultrasound showing large (>3 cm) right perinephric and subcutaneous abscesses. She was additionally diagnosed with new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) during admission. Abscess cultures obtained after placement of two percutaneous drains and the initiation of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics grew beta-hemolytic GBS. Here, we present to our knowledge, the first known documented case of GBS perinephric abscess in a school-aged child with DM. Much of the knowledge of perinephric abscess management is extrapolated from adults, therefore making optimal treatment in the pediatric population challenging. We propose that GBS be considered in the etiology of perinephric abscess in children with DM and other immunosuppressing conditions. In addition, percutaneous drainage of larger abscesses (>3 cm) in conjunction with antibiotic therapy is a reasonable management strategy.
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