İŞE ORYANTASYON SÜRECİNDE YAŞANAN SORUNLAR: KUŞADASI A GRUBU SEYAHAT ACENTALARI ÖRNEĞİ

İşe uyum süreci, yeni işgörenin örgütü tanıması, iş süreçlerini anlaması ve diğer çalışma arkadaşları ile iyi ilişkiler kurabilmesi açısından son derece önemli bir süreçtir. Bu sürecin başarısı, işgörenin örgütü benimsemesini sağlamakta ve uzun süreli bir kariyer için işletmeyi cazip kılmaktadır. Ayrıca turizm endüstrisi gibi işgücü devir hızının yüksek olduğu alanlarda bu sorunun çözümü açısından işe alıştırma eğitimi kritik öneme sahip bir olgudur. Bu araştırmanın amacı, A grubu seyahat acentalarında işe yeni başlayan çalışanların duygusal oryantasyon sürecinde ne gibi sorunlarla karşılaştıklarını ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın keşifsel konusu göz önüne alınarak nitel günlük araştırması yaklaşımı tercih edilmiştir. Araştırma Kuşadası’nda faaliyet gösteren A grubu seyahat acentalarında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Katılımcılar Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Turizm İşletmeciliği ve Otelcilik Yüksekokulu’nun Seyahat İşletmeciliği ve Turizm Rehberliği bölümü öğrencileri arasından seçilmiştir. Araştırma evreni daha önceden turizm sektöründe hiç çalışmamış 190 kişiden oluşmaktadır. 190 kişiden 110 kişi çalışma için gönüllü olmuştur. Gönüllü katılımcılar arasında bir seyahat acentasında iş bulup çalışanlar toplam 36 kişidir. Veriler, gönüllülük esasıyla 36 katılımcıdan günlük tekniği kullanılarak toplanmış ve içerik analizine tabi tutulmuştur. Elde edilen bulgular bireyler arası ilişkiler, örgütsel işleyiş, örgüt çevresi ve bireysel eksiklikler olarak tanımlanan dört boyut altında yer alan farklı tema başlıkları altında gruplandırılmıştır.

PROBLEMS ON THE ORIENTATION PROCESS: A RESEARCH ON A GRADE TRAVEL AGENCIES IN KUSADASI

The process of orientation to work is a very important process for the new employee to recognize the organization, to understand the business processes and to establish good relations with other colleagues. The success of this process makes the employee adopt the organization and makes the business attractive for a long-term career. In addition, it is a critical phenomenon in the areas where the labor force turnover is high, such as the tourism industry. As far as the education sector is concerned, research shows that most of the students who have received university-level tourism education do not include the tourism sector in their career goals after graduation. Therefore, it is very important to identify the problems experienced in the adaptation process, hence to produce solutions. Although the process of orientation to work has been investigated in different research areas, it has been examined in terms of accommodation enterprises in tourism sector. There has been little research on the orientation process of employees working in travel companies. Therefore, the process of orientation to work should be handled by taking into consideration the special conditions of the employees working in travel agencies and the problems of adaptation to work related to travel agencies should be determined. In this way, managers can foresee the problems of employees and take necessary measures to eliminate these problems. Employees who aim to make a career in travel agencies can also anticipate potential problems that may arise during the orientation process and have the chance to start their career with more realistic expectations. The basic aim of this study is to determine which problems face employees who work first time at A grade travel agencies in Kuşadası. Participants have never worked in a tourism business before, so they do not have any experience with the travel agency business, they just have expectations. In this way, the gap between the realities and expectations of the employees facing the realities of the tourism sector can be understood during the orientation process. In this way, the emotional reactions of employees can be determined. Qualitative diary research approach was preferred considering the exploratory issue of the study. The qualitative diary research is an effective tool that allows us to understand how the subject or the participant is changing in a particular process. It is a very successful technique for entering special areas where data collection techniques such as observations, interviews and questionnaires may be insufficient to reach. A diary writer also sees the diary as a means of emotional cleansing at the end of a busy working day. Due to the high level of trust that is established between the researcher and the participant, the diary writer can log his deepest feelings and thoughts. This research conducted at A grade travel agencies in Kuşadası. Participants chosed from students who graduate from Adnan Menderes University, Tourism and Hotel Management Higher School, Department of Tourism Guideness. The universe of research consists of 190 people who have never worked in the tourism sector before. 110 out of 190 people volunteered for the study. Among the volunteer participants, a total of 36 employees are employed in a travel agency. Data collected from 36 participants by using research diaries and analyzed by content analysis technique. In the content analysis process, the data is divided into three categories as perceptual, mirrored and descriptive data. Perceptual data refer to participants’ prejudices and stereotypes about the research area. Reflected data consists of off-the-job experiences that are not related to the research question. Since the reflected data contains the spontaneous thoughts of the participant, it can contribute to the answer to the research question. Finally, descriptive data constitute the data set containing the answer to the research question. The definition of the research question is derived from descriptive data. Findings coded in different themes and categorised in four different dimensions. These four themes were defined as interpersonal relations, organizational functioning, organizational environment and individual deficiencies. In addition, it was determined during the orientation period that the participants decided to quit and when they left the job. However, the thoughts of the participants under extreme pressure were analyzed under the title of emotional explosions. It is also stated that what makes an employee happy for the first time in a travel agency. In addition, each participant was asked to write one positive and one negative word at the end of the working day defining that working day. In this way, key word analysis which defines the orientation process has been done. In this way, researcher creates a definitional framework for problems of

Kaynakça

Aldemir, C., Ataol, A. & Budak, G. (1998). Personel Yönetimi. 3. Baskı, İzmir: Barış Yayınları.

Avcı, U. & Boylu, Y. (2010). Türk turizm çalışanları için duygusal emek geçerlemesi. Seyahat ve Otel İşletmeciliği Dergisi, 7(2), 20-29

Baş, T. & Akturan, U. (Eds.) (2013). Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. 2. Baskı. Ankara: Seçkin Kitapevi.

Bingöl, D. (1998). İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi. 4. Baskı. İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.

Brewerton, P. M. (2001). Organizational Research Methods: A Guide For Students and Researchers. Londra: Sage Publications.

Cadwell, C. (1989). New Employee Orientation: A Practical Guide for Supervisors. Boston: Course Technology Crisp.

Cascio, W. F. (1992). Managing Human Resources. 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chandrakumara, A. & Sparrow, P. (2004). Work orientation as an element of national culture and its impact on HRM policy-practice design choices. Lessons from Sri Lanka. International Journal of Manpower, 25(6), 564-589.

Coghlan, D. (2004). Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization. 2nd Edition. Londra: Sage Publications.

Collins, J. M. (2005). Preventing Identity Theft in Your Business: How to Protect Your Business, Customers, and Employees. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Elliot, H. (1997). The use of diaries in sociological research on health experience. Sociological Research Online, 2(2). http://www.socresonline.org.uk/socresonline/2/2/7.html.

Finn, M., Elliot-White, M. & Walton, M. (2000). Tourism and Leisure Research Methods Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretion. Harlow: Longman.

Freudig, T., Tiggelaar, D., Richardson, S., Gardner, D. & Boyle, K. (2019). Germ blasters and gameful thinking: Saving new employee orientation one mission at a time. Nurse Leader, 17(2), 117-120.

Greenwood, D. J. (Ed.) (1999). Action Research. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Harrison, T. M. (1985). Communication and participative decision making: An exploratory study. Personnel Psychology, 38(1), 93-116.

Haslam, S.A., Powell, C. & Turner, J. (2000). Social identity, self-categorization, and work motivation: Rethinking the contribution of the group to positive and sustainable organisational outcomes. Applied Psychology, 49(3), 319-339.

Hewagama, G., Boxall, P., Cheung, G. & Hutchison, A. (2019). Service recovery through empowerment? HRM, employee performance and job satisfaction in hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 81, 73-82.

Jackson, P. W. (1968). Life in Classromms. New York: Teachers College Press.

Kandasamy, I. & Ancheri, S. (2009). Hotel employees’ expectations of QWL: A qualitative study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 328-337.

Karakaş, A. (2014). İnsan kaynakları yönetiminde işe alıştırma eğitimi programlarının önemi. Dicle Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 4(7), 1-14.

Karakaş, A. (2107). Duygusal emek, tükenmişlik ve işten ayrılma niyeti arasındaki ilişki: Otel işletmesi çalışanları üzerine bir araştırma. İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9(1), 80-112.

Karakaş, A., Tösten, R., Kansu, V. & Aydın, A. S. (2016). Öğretmenlerin duygusal emek davranışlarının iş doyumlarına etkisi. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 15(56), 177-188.

Kaynak, T., Adal, Z., Ataay, İ., Uyargil, C., Sadullah, Ö., Acar, A. C., Özçelik, O., Dündar, G. & Uluhan, R. (1998). İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Yayınları.

Kocabacak, A. (2006). İnsan Kaynakları Eğitiminde Oryantasyon. (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Selçuk Üniversitesi, Konya.

Kolodinsky, R. W., Ritchie, W., Kuna, W. A. (2017). Meaningful engagement: Impacts of a ‘calling’ work orientation and perceived leadership support. Journal of Management & Organization, 24(3), 406-423

Kozak, M. A. (1999). Otel İşletmelerinde İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi ve Örnek Olaylar. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.

Lashley, C. (2002). Emotional harmony, dissonance and deviance at work. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 14(5), 255-257.

Levin, M. (1999). Action Research Paradigms. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Levine, M. F., Taylor, J. C. & Davis, L.E. (1984). Defining quality of working life. Human Relations. 37(1), 81-104.

Mackrill, T. (2008). Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy ın qualitative research – Pros And Cons. Europan Journal Of Psychotherapy and Counselling, 10(1), 5-18.

Merriam, S. B. (2015). Nitel Araştırma. (Çev. Ed. Turan, S.), Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi.

Mujtaba, B. G. (2008). Employee orientation and mentoring programs. In Tesone, D. V. & Pizam, A. (Eds.) A. Handbook Of Hospitality Human Resources Management. Oxon: Routledge, 317-346.

Murtonen, M., Olkinuora, E., Palonen, T., Hakkarainen, K. & Lehtinen, E. (2008). Motivational orientations in work. International Journal of Educational Research, 47(4), 213-222.

Nadler, D. & Lawler, E. (1983). Quality of work life: Perspectives and directions. Organization Dynamics 11(4), 20-30.

Neale, J., Allen, D. & Coombes, L. (2005). Qualitative research methods within the addictions. Addiction, 100(11), 1584-1593.

Nelson, B. (1999). Enerji dolu bir işyeri yaratmak. In Hesselbein, F. & Cohen, P. M. (Eds.). Liderden Lidere, İstanbul: BZD Yayıncılık.

Onwuegbuzie, A. & Leech, N. (2007). A call for qualitative power analyses. Quality & Quantity, 41(1), 105-121.

Özdemir, N. (2002). İşe Alıştırma (Oryantasyon) Eğitimi. www.okyanusbilgiambari.com/ InsanKaynaklari/egitim/oryantasyon.pdf. adresinden alındı

Park, C., Jun, J., Lee, T. & Lee, H. (2018). Customer orientation or employee orientation: Which mattersmore? The moderating role of firm size. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 33(7), 1001-1011.

Patterson, A. (2005). Processes, relationships, settings, products and consumers: The case for qualitative diary research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 8(2), 142-156.

Patterson, B., Bayley, E.W., Burnell, K. & Rhoads, J. (2009). Orientation to emergency nursing: Perceptions of new graduate nurses. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 36(3), 203-211.

Phillips, J.J. (1999). Accountability in Human Resource Management. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.

Robinson, J. P. (1999). The time-diary method structure and uses. In Pentland, W. E., Harvey, A., Lawton, M. P. & McColl M. A. (Eds.), Time Use Research in The Social Sciences. New York: Springer, 47-90.

Rothwell, W. J. & Kazanas, H. C. (2003). Planning & Managing Human Resources: Strategic Planning For Human Resources Management. 2nd Edition. Massachusetts: HRD Press Inc.

Sanders, P. (1982). Phenomenology: A new way of viewing organizational research. The Academy of Management Review, 7, 353-360.

Taşkın, E. (2001). İşletme Yönetiminde Eğitim ve Geliştirme. İstanbul: Papatya Yayıncılık.

Välimäki T., Vehviläinen-Julkunen K. & Pietilä A. M. (2007). Diaries as research data in a study on family caregivers of people with alzheimer’s disease: Methodological issues. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 59(1), 68-76.

Walker, J. R. & Miller, J. E. (2010). Supervision in the Hospitality Industry: Leading Human Resources. 6th Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Winter, R. (2001). Handbook for Action Research in Health and Social Care. Londra: Routledge.

Kaynak Göster