Covid-19 Salgını Döneminde Sosyal Pazarlamayı ve Davranış Değişimini Yeniden Düşünmek

Covid-19 salgını bireylerde pozitif yönde davranış değişimi ortaya çıkarmaktaki başarısızlığın ne tip sosyal trajediler yaşattığını bizlere çok çarpıcı bir şekilde göstermiştir. Salgın sürecinde ortaya çıkan umursamaz davranışlar, hedef gruplarda davranış değişikliği ortaya çıkarmada daha etkili araçların kullanımını zorunlu kılmıştır. Sosyal pazarlama, davranışların önündeki engelleri tanımlayarak ve kaldırarak planlanan davranışı daha kolay geliştiren bir yaklaşımdır. Bu yaklaşımda davranışın önündeki engelleri anlamak adına hedef grubu izlemek ve tanımlamak çok önemlidir. Bunun yanında, paydaş teorisini kullanan sosyal pazarlamacılar için, özellikle büyük mali güç ve nitelikli insan kaynağı ile iş dünyasının desteğini kazanma olasılığı daha yüksektir. Ancak bu olasılığı artırmak için de Pazarlama 3.0 ile bağlantılı olarak sosyal değer yaratma fikrinin şirketlerin misyon ve vizyonu içine yerleştirilmesi gerekmektedir.

Rethinking Social Marketing and Behavioural Change in Times of Covid-19 Pandemic

Covid 19 pandemic has clearly demonstrated the kind of social tragedies that occur as a result of the failure to impact positive behaviour change on the individuals. The misconducts during the epidemic forced the use of more effective tools for the creation of the desired behaviour of target groups. Social marketing is an approach that develops the planned behaviour more easily by identifying and removing the barriers to human behaviours. In this approach, monitoring and identifying the target group is very important to understand the barriers to behavioural change. In addition, social marketers using stakeholder theory are more likely to gain the support of the business world, who possesses great financial power and qualified human resources. However, in order to increase this possibility, the idea of creating social value in connection with Marketing 3.0 should be embedded within the mission and vision of the companies.

Kaynakça

Agafonoff, N., 2006. Adapting ethnographic research methods to ad hoc commercial market research. Qualitative Marketing Research, 9 (2), 115–125.

Alden, D., Basil, M. D., & Deshpande, S. 2011. Communications in social marketing. In G. Hastings, K. Angus,& C. Bryant (Eds.), Sage handbook of social marketing (pp. 167–177). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Andreasen AR. 2002. Marketing social marketing in the social change marketplace. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 21(1): 3–13. Baker Scott, Nicholas Bloom, Steven Davis, Stephen Terry (2020). “COVID-induced economic uncertainty and its consequences”, https://voxeu.org/article/covid-induced-economic-uncertainty-and-its-consequences?

Bickman, L. 1972. Environmental attitudes and actions. Journal of Social Psychology, 87, 323–324. Brennan L., Fry, M., Previte. J. 2015. Strengthening social marketing research: Harnessing “insight” through ethnography Australasian Marketing Journal 23, pp. 286–293.

Nuray Buyucek, Kubacki, K., Rundle-Thiele S., Bo Pang. 2016. A systematic review of stakeholder involvement in social marketing interventions. Australasian Marketing Journal 24, pp:8–19.

Buyucek N.,. Kathy K., Rundle-Thiele S., 2018. Observing alcohol drinking unlicensed premises: a formative social marketing study. Journal of Social Marketing Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 40-57.

Celik, S. 2016. A new method of social marketing: Community based social marketing”. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(2), 3057-3072.

Chen, H., and Chen, Y. 2019. Influence of a creative problem-solving approach on college students’ creativity and its relation with team cohesion. Journal of Research in Education Sciences, 64(3), 169–201.

Cilizoglu Gamze Yetkin, Z. Benan Dondurucu, Aysel Cetinkaya. 2020. Analysis of Youtube Advertisements of GSM Operators in the Covid-19 Pandemia Process in the Context of Social Marketing. International Journal of Cultural and Social Studies (IntJCSS). June : Volume 6 (Issue 1)/ e-ISSN : 2458-9381.

Cone, 2008. The 2008 Cone Cause Evolution Study.

Coskun, Gul. 2012. Social Marketing and Social Marketing Mix: Case Study of Komsu Kollama Project of Antalya Police Department. Manisa Celal Bayar University Social Sciences Journal Vol. 10 No:2.

Deloitte (2020). (Sayı II). https://www2.deloitte.com/tr/tr/pages/consulting/articles/kuresel-covid-19-salgininin-turkiyede-farkli-kategorilere-etkileri.html

Desai D. 2009. Role of Relationship Management and Value Co-Creation in Social Marketing. Social Marketing Quarterly XV(4): 112–125.

Duong, H.T., Brenna, L., Parker, L., Florian, M., 2015. But I AM normal: perceptions of safe driving norms in Vietnam. J. Soc. Mark. 5 (2), 105–124.

Farmer, et al., 2002; in Celik, S. 2016. A new method of social marketing: Community based social marketing”. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(2), 3057-3072.

Freeman, R.E., 1984. Stakeholder Management: Framework and Philosophy. Pitman, Boston.

Fauziah, M., Marmoah, S., Murwaningsih, T., & Saddhono, K. 2020. The effect of thinking actively in a social context and creative problem-solving learning models on divergent-thinking skills viewed from adversity quotient. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(2), 537-568.

Geller, E. S. (1981). Evaluating energy conservation programs: Is verbal report enough? Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.8, December 1981, 331-335.

Geller, E. S., Erickson, J. B. and Buttram, B. A. 1983. Attempts to promote residential water conservation with educational, behavioral and engineering strategies. Population and Environment Behavioral and Social Issues, 6, 96–112.

Gregson, J.,. Forester, S. B., Orr, R., Jones L. 2001. System, environmental, and policy changes: using the social-ecological model as a framework for evaluating nutrition education and social marketing programs with low-ıncome audiences. Journal of Nutrition Education. 33 Suppl 1:S4-15.

Hamby, A., Pierce, M., Brinberg, D. 2017. Solving Complex Problems: Enduring Solutions through Social Entrepreneurship, Community Action, and Social Marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, 37(4), 369–380. https://doi.org/10.1177/0276146716663797 Hastings, G. 2003. Relational paradigms in social marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, 23(1), 6-15.

Hyman, M., Shabbir, H., Chari, S., Oikonomou, A., 2014. Anti-child-abuse ads: believability and willingness-to-act. J. Soc. Mark. 4 (1), 58–76.

Jessica Pykett, Rhys Jones, Marcus Welsh, Mark Whitehead 2014. The art of choosing and the politics of social marketing, Policy Studies, 35:2, 97-114, DOI:10.1080/01442872.2013.875141

Kennedy, Amanda L. 2010. Using community-based social marketing techniques to enhance environmental regulation. Sustainability, 2, 1138-1160; doi:10.3390/su2041138.

Key, T. M. and Czaplewski, A. J. 2017. Upstream social marketing strategy: An integrated marketing communications approach. Business Horizons. Vol. 60, pp: 325—333.

Kotler, P. and Zaltman, G. 1971. Social marketing: an approach to planned social change, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 35, July, 3-12. Kotler, P., Kartajaya H. and Setiawan I. 2010. Marketing 3.0. John Wiley and Sonz, Inc.

Kotler, P. and Keller K. L. 2012. Marketing management. Prentice Hall.

Low-Beer, D. and Stoneburner, R. 2003. Behaviour and communication change in reducing HIV: Is Uganda unique? African Journal of AIDS Research 2(1):9-21.MacFadyen, L., Stead, M., & Hastings, G. 1999. A synopsis of social marketing. Institute for Social Marketing, 1-10.

Shamini, M. and Russell-Bennett, R. 2016. The social marketing theory-based (SMT) approach for designing interventions. Journal of Social Marketing. Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 18-40.

McKenzie-Mohr, D., and Smith, W. 1999. Fostering sustainable behavior: An introduction to community-based social marketing (2nd ed.). Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society.

McKenzie-Mohr, Doug 2000. Promoting Sustainable Behavior: An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing, Journal of Social Issues, Vol.56, No.3, 543-554.

McKie, D. and Willis P., 2012, Renegotiating the terms of engagement: Public relations, marketing, and contemporary challenges. Public Relations Review, Volume 38, Issue 5.

Menegaki, A.N., 2012. A social marketing mix for renewable energy in Europe based on consumer stated preference surveys, Renewable Energy, Vol: 39, pp: 30-39.

Nair, R., & Nair, S.S. 2012. Is behavior change communication an effective strategy for increasing immunization coverage? Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International, 2, 40–60.

Nalbantoglu, A. 2018a. The effect of ethics on management and ethical dilemmas encountered in enterprises. Journal of Economics and Management Research Vol:7, No:2.

Nalbantoglu, A. 2018b. Current problems and applications in marketing ethics. Journal of Social and Humanities Sciences Research (JSHSR). Vol:5 Issue:30 pp:4249-4264

Noiseux, Krystal K. and Mark E. Hostetler (2007). Making Your Community Green: Community-Based Social Marketing for EcoFriendly Communities, in Celik, S. 2016. A new method of social marketing: Community based social marketing”. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(2), 3057-3072.

Orcan, Mustafa. 2007. CSR Campaigns in fight against poverty. Journal of Afyon Kocatepe University Economy and Managerial Sciences Faculty. Vol. 9, no: 2, pp: 27-37.

Parkinson, J., Russell-Bennett, R., Previte, J., 2012. Mum or bub? Which influences breastfeeding loyalty. Australasian Marketing Journal. Vol: 20, pp: 16–23.

Peattie, S., Peattie, K., Thomas, R., 2012. Social marketing as transformational marketing in public services: the case of Project Bernie. Public Management Review. 14 (7), 987–1010.

Pickens, Pamela Mae (2002). Community-Based Social Marketing As A Planning Tool – Community and Regional Planning Masters Project, University of Oreon-Architecture and Allied Arts Department, 1-62.

Pllana, Duli. 2019. Creativity in Modern Education. World Journal of Education. Vol. 9, No. 2.

Pykett, J, Jones, R, Welsh, M & Whitehead, M. 2014. The art of choosing and the politics of social marketing. Policy Studies. Vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 97-114.

Rundle-Thiele, S. R. 2009. Social gain: Is corporate social responsibility enough? Australasian Marketing Journal. Vol: 17, pp: 204–210. Senturk, T. 2015. Green marketing for green energy of Turkey. 1st Eurasia Energy Issues Symposium, Full paper book, Izmir Katip Celebi University Publications. Vol.3, pp: 48-58.

Senturk, T. 2019. Social entrepreneurship and social marketing. International Studies on Multidisciplinary Academic Studies. Full paper book.www.imases.net, pp:565-574.

Tabanico, Jennifer J. and P. Wesley Schultz 2007. People aspect of recycling programs- community-based social marketing, BioCycle, JG Pres, 41-44.

Tapp, A., Pressley, A., Baugh, M., White, P., 2013. Wheels, skills and thrills: a social marketing trial to reduce aggressive driving from young men in deprived areas. Accident Analysis and Preventation. 58, 148–157.

Kaynak Göster

APA Şentürk, T . (2021). Rethinking Social Marketing and Behavioural Change in Times of Covid-19 Pandemic . Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 19 (1) , 321-338 . DOI: 10.18026/cbayarsos.855708