Yoksullukla Mücadeleye İnsan Hakları Açısından Bakmak: Amartya Sen’in Kapasite (Capability) Yaklaşımı Temelinde Bir Değerlendirme

Yoksullukla mücadele konusu ağırlıklı olarak 1990'lı yıllardan itibaren uluslararası alanda yoğun bir şekilde tartışılmaktadır. Bu süreçte şüphesiz 1980'li yıllardan itibaren Dünya Bankası ve IMF öncülüğünde gelişmekte olan ve az gelişmiş ülkelerde uygulanan yapısal uyum politikalarının yoksulluk sorunu açısından yarattığı olumsuzluklar etkili olmuştur. Yapısal uyum politikaları sürecinde yoksulluk sorununun ekonomik büyümeyle birlikte çözümlenebilecek bir sorun olarak görülmesi, yoksullukla mücadele ve kalkınma konularının ekonomik büyüme merkezli ve gelir odaklı olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu makalede, özellikle 1990'lı yıllardan itibaren öne çıkan insan hakları ile kalkınma ve yoksulluk söylemleri arasındaki yakınlaşmaya dikkat çekilmektedir. Yoksullukla mücadeleye egemen bakış açısından farklı bir yaklaşım olarak insan hakları açısından yaklaşılmasının arka planı, Amartya Sen'in kapasite yaklaşımı çerçevesinde analiz edilmektedir. Amartya Sen'in kapasite yaklaşımı, yoksulluğu temel kapasitelerden yoksunluk olarak ele almakta ve gelir dışındaki (nonincome) değişkenlere odaklanmaktadır. Amartya Sen'in kapasite yaklaşımı üzerine inşa edilen ve Birleşmiş Milletler Kalkınma Programı tarafından geliştirilen insani gelişme ve insani yoksulluk kavramsallaştırması ise yoksulluk ve insan hakları söylemlerinin birbirine yaklaşmasında etkili olmuştur. Amartya Sen, temel özgürlüklerin ve insan hakları anlayışının iktisadi analizlerde yer almasının kritik bir öneme sahip olduğu konusunda uluslararası gündemin dikkatini çekmeyi başarmıştır. Yoksullukla mücadelenin insan hakları eksenli bir yaklaşımla ele alınması, hem yoksulluğun mahiyetinin daha iyi anlaşılmasına neden olabilecek hem de yoksullukla mücadelenin meşru bir temele dayanan daha elverişli politika araçlarıyla gerçekleştirilebilmesine olanak tanıyacaktır

Approaching To Struggle Against Poverty From The Point Of View Of Human Rights: An Evaluation Based On The Capability Approach Of Amartya Sen

The issue of struggle against poverty has been discussed intensively in the international arena especially from the beginning of 1990s. In this period, it is unquestionable that the problems arisen from the structural adjustment policies applied in developing and underdeveloped countries from the 1980s have negative effects on poverty. In the period of structural adjustment, the view dealing poverty as a problem which could be solved with the rise of economic growth shows that the issues of development and struggle against poverty is growth- centered and income- focused. In this paper, the convergence between the human rights and poverty discourses which has become widespread from the 1990s is drawn attention as a different paradigm to fight against poverty. The background of the approach to struggle against poverty from the point of view of human rights is analyzed in the framework of capability approach developed by Amartya Sen. In his capability approach, Amartya Sen deals with poverty as the deprivations of basic capabilities and he focuses on the non-income variables. The concepts of human development and human poverty built upon the capability approach of Amaryta Sen and developed by UNDP have been effective for the convergence of the issues of poverty and human rights. With his research agenda, Amartya Sen has succeeded in drawing international attention on the critical importance of fundamental freedoms and human rights for economic analysis. Approaching to struggle against poverty from the point of view of human rights will contribute both to being well understood of the nature of poverty and to the implementation of the effective policy instruments based on justifiable reasons for the struggle against poverty

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