Türkiye'nin Yüksek Teknolojili İmalat Sanayi Endüstrilerinde Bilgi Dışsallıkları: Mekansal Panel Veri Analizleri

Bilgi dışsallıkları, firmalar arasındaki yeni ve yenilikçi bilginin pozitif yayılma çıktıları olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bilgi dışsallıkları, yenilikçi bilginin üretim sürecine ve dolayısıyla da yeni bilgi yaratımının maliyetine ortak olmayan firmalar üzerinde pozitif etkiler yaratmaktadır. Belli bir mekansal alanda odaklanmış firmalar arasındaki ağ ekonomilerinin bilgi akışını hızlandırması nedeniyle ise bilgi dışsallıkları, özellikle bölgesel ekonomiler için kritik öneme sahip olmaktadır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye'de bölgeler itibariyle 1989 - 2008 zaman periyodunda bilgi dışsallıklarının varlığını, ortaya çıkan bilgi dışsallıklarının türlerini ve ekonomik etkilerini ampirik bulgular ile ortaya koymaktadır. Bu çalışmanın temel odak noktası, yenilikçi çıktılar üretmeleri ve dolayısıyla bilgi dışsallıkları üreterek bölgesel ekonomileri etkilemeleri açısından orta-yüksek ve yüksek teknolojili endüstrilerdir. Bu bağlamda ampirik bulgular, Türkiye'de dinamik bilgi dışsallıklarının static bilgi dışsallıklarından daha sık ortaya çıktığını ve bölgesel ekonomileri de genellikle pozitif etkilediklerini göstermektedir. Ayrıca, Marshall - Arrow - Romer bilgi dışsallıklarının 2001 yılı öncesinde bölgelerde en sık ortaya çıkan bilgi dışsallığı türü olduğu gözlenirken, 2001 sonrasında Porter bilgi dışsallıklarının en sık görülen bilgi dışsallıkları haline geldiği tespit edilmiştir

Knowledge Externalities in Turkish High-Technology Manufacturing Industries: Spatial Panel Data Analyses

Knowledge externalities are defined as positive spillover outcomes of new and innovative knowledge among firms. They create positive impacts on firms' productions, which did not participate in the production process and the costs of new knowledge creation. Knowledge externalities have critical importance especially for regional economies due to the fact that firms locating in the same region create networks in which knowledge disseminates quickly. This paper presents empirical evidences about the existence, types and impacts of knowledge externalities in Turkish regions for 1989 - 2008 time period. The main focus of this study is medium-high and high-technology industries due to the fact that these industries produce innovative outcomes and hence affect regional economies by creating knowledge externalities. In this context empirical evidences indicate that dynamic knowledge externalities occur more frequently than static ones and in general they affect regional economies positively in Turkey. Also, MarshallArrow-Romer knowledge externalities most frequently occurred before 2001 while after this year, Porter knowledge externalities have most frequently occurred in medium-high and high technology industries in Turkish regions

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Table 1A: Medium-High and High-Technology Industries According to ISIC Rev2 Industrial Classification (1989 - 2001) CODE INDUSTRY NAME

Table 2A: Analysed Medium-High and High-Technology Industries According to NACE Rev.1.1 Industrial Classification (2004 - 2008) CODE INDUSTRY NAME

Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. Manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus n.e.c. Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Manufacture of furniture; manufacturing n.e.c. Source: Eurostat (1996) NACE rev1.1 statistical classification of economic activities in the European community. Luxembourg.

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