Genetics of Risk-Taking Behavior: Current Knowledge, Challenges and Future Directions

Our daily decisions reflect continuous assessments of risk that highly varies from one individual to the other. Research on the underlying mechanisms of individual differences in risk-taking behavior emphasizes changes in neural and physiological pathways that is in part due to the activation of different neurotransmitter systems. Consequently, genetic variations in these systems were the primary target of studies investigating the genetic underpinnings of risk-taking behavior. The aim of this review is to give an overview of our current knowledge related to genetic variations in these systems and economic risk-taking behavior. We first examine candidate gene association studies, followed by genome-wide association and gene-environment interaction studies utilizing differentmeasures of risk-taking to illustrate the progress in the field. Research to date suggests alterations in risk-taking behavior mostly by the genes of serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in addition to influences by psychological trait measures and psychosocial factors. Considering the characteristics and results of these studies, we discuss the limitations and challenges in this area. Finally, we provide suggestions for future genoeconomics research illustrating potential benefits of interdisciplinary studies in behavioral economics.

Risk Alma Davranişinin Genetiği: Güncel Bilgiler, Zorluklar ve Geleceğe Yönelik Öneriler

Günlük kararlarımız, bir kişiden diğerine oldukça değişen ve süregelen risk değerlendirmelerimizi yansıtır. Risk-alma davranışındaki bireysel farklılıkların altında yatan mekanizmaları araştıran çalışmalar, kısmen farklı nörotransmitter sistemlerinin aktivasyonuyla ilişkili sinirselve fizyolojik yolaklardaki değişikliklerin önemini vurgulamaktadır. Onedenle, risk-alma davranışının genetik dayanaklarıyla ilgili araştırmaların öncelikli hedefi, bu sistemlerdeki genetik farklılıklar olmuştur. Bu derlemenin amacı, bu sistemlerdeki genetik farklılıklar ve ekonomik risk-alma davranışı ile ilgili güncel bilgilerimize genel bir bakış sunmaktır. Alandaki gelişimi göstermek için öncelikle farklı risk-alma ölçümleri kullanan aday gen ilişkilendirme çalışmalarının bulguları, sonrasındada genom boyu ilişkilendirme ve gen-çevre etkileşimi çalışmalarının bulguları incelenecektir. Bugüne kadar yapılan araştırmalar, psikolojik özellik ölçümleri ve psikososyal faktörlerin etkilerine ek olarak, çoğunlukla serotonerjik ve dopaminerjik sistem genlerinin risk-alma davranışı üzerindekietkisini incelemektedir. Bu araştırmaların özellikleri ve sonuçları göz önünde bulundurularak, bu alandakisınırlamalar ve zorluklar tartışılacaktır.Son olarak, bu bulguların davranışsal ekonomi alanındaki interdisipliner çalışmalar için potansiyel faydaları gösterilerek,gelecekteki genoekonomi araştırmaları için öneriler sunulacaktır.

Kaynakça

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