YETİŞKİN SKOLYOZU

Yetişkin skolyozu; yaşlı populasyonun önemli kısmını etkilemekte ve prevelansı artmaktadır. Bel ağrısı ve deformite yetişkin skolyozunda cerrahi için major endikasyonlardır. Hastalığın patoanatomisini ve davranışını anlamak tedavi sonuçlarını değiştirebilir. Tedavi yöntemi kararını verirken asıl şikayetin ve altta yatan hastalığın dikkatli olarak değerlendirilmesi sadece sikayetleri ortadan kaldırmayı değil komplikasyonlarıda azaltır. Hastadan hastaya farklılık gösteren, cerrahi seçeneğin ve füzyon seviyelerinin doğru seçilmesi kanıta dayalı yaklaşım gerektirir ve bu istenmeyen sonuçları azaltacaktır.

ADULT SCOLIOSIS

Adult scoliosis deformity afflicts a significant portion of the elderly and is increasing in prevalence. Back pain and deformity are major indications for surgery in adult scoliosis. Understanding the pathoanatomy and behavior of this disease would change the patient outcome. When selecting a treatment method, major symptoms and underlying medical disease should be carefully evaluated, not only to relieve symptoms but also to minimize complications. True decision of the surgical option and fusion levels that varies to patient needs evidence based approach. And this will decrease the unexpected results.

Kaynakça

Aebi M. The adult scoliosis. Eur Spine J 2005; 14: 925-948.

Ailon T, Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, Lenke LG, Brodke D, Harrop JS, Fehlings M, Ames CP. Degenerative Spinal Deformity. Neurosurgery 2015; 77 (Suppl. 4): 75-91.

Akbarnia BA, Ogilvie JW, Hammerberg KW. De- bate: degenerative scoliosis: to operate or not to operate. Spine 2006; 31(19 Suppl): 195-201.

Berven S, Kao H, Deviren V, Hu S, Bradford D. Treatment of thoracic pseudoarthrosis in the adult: Is combined surgery necessary? Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003; 411: 25-31.

Bradford DS, Tay BK, Hu SS. Adult scoliosis: sur- gical indications, operative management, complications, and outcomes. Spine 1999; 24: 2617-2629.

Bradford DS, Tribus CB. Vertebral column resec- tion for the treatment of rigid coronal decompensation. Spine 1997; 22: 1590-1599.

Bridwell KH, Edwards CC 2nd, Lenke LG. The pros and cons to saving the L5-S1 motion segment in a long scoliosis fusion construct. Spine 2003; 28: 234-242.

Carter OD, Haynes SG. Prevalence rates for sco- liosis in US adults: results from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int J Epidemiol 1987; 16: 537-544.

Cho KJ, Suk SI, Park SR, Kim JH, Kim SS, Lee TJ, Lee JJ, Lee JM. Short fusion versus long fusion for degen- erative lumbar scoliosis. Eur Spine J 2008; 17: 650-656.

Cho KJ, Suk SI, Park SR, Kim JH, Jung JH. Se- lection of proximal fusion level for adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Eur Spine J 2013; 22: 394-401.

Cho KJ, Suk SI, Park SR, Kim JH, Choi SW, Yoon YH, Won MH. Arthrodesis to L5 versus S1 in long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar sco- liosis. Eur Spine J 2009; 18: 531-537.

Cho KJ, Suk SI, Park SR, Kim JH, Kang SB, Kim HS, Oh SJ. Risk factors of sagittal decompensation after long posterior instrumentation and fusion for degenera- tive lumbar scoliosis. Spine 2010; 35: 1595-601.

Daffner SD, Vaccaro AR. Adult degenerative lum- bar scoliosis. Am J Orthop 2003; 32: 77-82.

Deckey JE, Court C, Bradford DS. Loss of sagit- tal plane correction after removal of spinal implants. Spi- ne 2000; 25: 2453-2460.

DePalma M J, Slipman C W. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with epidural ste- roid injections. Spine J 2008; 8: 45-55.

Edwards CC 2nd, Bridwell KH, Patel A, Rinella AS, Jung Kim Y, Berra AB, Della Rocca GJ, Lenke LG. Thoracolumbar deformity arthrodesis to L5 in adults: the fate of the L5-S1 disc. Spine 2003; 28: 2122-2131.

Glassman SD, Bridwell K, Dimar JR, Horton W, Berven S, Schwab F. The impact of positive sagittal balance in adult spinal deformity. Spine 2005; 30: 2024- 2029.

Glassman SD, Carreon LY, Shaffrey CI, Polly DW, Ondra SL, Berven SH, Bridwell KH. The costs and benefits of nonoperative management for adult scoliosis. Spine 2010; 35: 578-582.

Gupta M C. Degenerative scoliosis. Options for surgical management. Orthop Clin North Am 2003; 34: 269-279.

Healey JH, Lane JM. Structural scoliosis in osteo- porotic women. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1985; 195: 216- 223.

Hong JY, Suh SW, Modi HN, Hur CY, Song HR, Park JH. The prevalence and radiological findings in 1347 elderly patients with scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br.

Horton WC, Brown CW, Bridwell KH, Glass- man SD, Suk SI, Cha CW. Is there an optimal patient stance for obtaining a lateral 36'' radiograph? A clinical comparison of three techniques. Spine 2005; 30: 427- 433.

Li G, Passias P, Kozanek M, Fu E, Wang S, Xia Q, Li G, Rand FE, Wood KB. Adult scoliosis in patients over sixty-five years of age: outcomes of operative versus nonoperative treatment at a minimum two-year follow- up. Spine 2009; 34: 2165-2170.

Lowe T, Berven SH, Schwab FJ, Bridwell KH. The SRS classification for adult spinal deformity: build- ing on the King/Moe and Lenke classification systems. Spine 2006; 31(19 Suppl): S119-125.

Marchesi DG, Aebi M. Pedicle fixation devices in the treatment of adult lumbar scoliosis. Spine 1992; 17(8 Suppl): S304-S309.

Mendoza-Lattes S, Ries Z, Gao Y, Weinstein S L. Natural history of spinopelvic alignment differs from symptomatic deformity of the spine. Spine. 2010; 35: E792-E798.

Mok J M, Cloyd J M, Bradford DS, Hu SS, De- viren V, Smith JA, Tay B, Berven SH. Reoperation after primary fusion for adult spinal deformity: rate, reason, and timing. Spine. 2009; 34: 832-839.

Polly DW, Jr, Hamill CL, Bridwell KH. Debate: to fuse or not to fuse to the sacrum, the fate of the L5-S1 disc. Spine 2006; 31(19 Suppl): 179-184.

Pritchett JW, Bortel DT. Degenerative symptom- atic lumbar scoliosis. Spine 1993; 18: 700-703.

Robin GC, Span Y, Steinberg R, Makin M, Menc- zel J. Scoliosis in the elderly: a follow-up study. Spine 1982;7(4): 355-359.

Russo A, Bransford R, Wagner T, Lee M J, Chap- man J R. Adult degenerative scoliosis insights, challeng- es, and treatment outlook. Curr Orthop Pract 2008; 19: 357-365

Sansur CA, Smith JS, Coe JD, Glassman SD, Ber- ven SH, Polly DW Jr, Perra JH, Boachie-Adjei O, Shaf- frey CI. Scoliosis research society morbidity and mortality of adult scoliosis surgery. Spine 2011; 36: E593-E597.

Scheufler KM, Cyron D, Dohmen H, Eckardt A. Less invasive surgical correction of adult degenerative sco- liosis. Part II: Complications and clinical outcome Neuro- surgery 2010; 67: 1609-1621.

Schwab F, Dubey A, Gamez L, El Fegoun AB, Hwang K, Pagala M, Farcy JP. Adult scoliosis: prevalence, SF-36, and nutritional parameters in an elderly volunteer population. Spine 2005; 30: 1082-1085.

Schwab F, Farcy JP, Bridwell K, Berven S, Glass- man S, Harrast J, Horton W. A clinical impact classifica- tion of scoliosis in the adult. Spine 2006; 31: 2109-2114.

Schwab F, Ungar B, Blondel B, Buchowski J, Coe J, Deinlein D, DeWald C, Mehdian H, Shaffrey C, Tri- bus C, Lafage V. Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab adult spinal deformity classification: a validation study. Spine 2012; 37: 1077-1082.

Sengupta K. Rosemont, Adult spinal deformity. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Press 2012; pp: 349-367.

Shufflebarger H, Suk SI, Mardjetko S. Debate: determining the upper instrumented vertebra in the ma- nagement of adult degenerative scoliosis: stopping at T10 versus L1. Spine 2006; 31(19 Suppl): 185-194.

Silva F E, Lenke L G. Adult degenerative scoliosis: evaluation and management. Neurosurg Focus 2010; 28: E1-E10.

Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, Berven S, Glassman S, Hamill C, Horton W, Ondra S, Schwab F, Shainline M, Fu KM, Bridwell K; Spinal Deformity Study Group. Spi- nal Deformity Study Group Improvement of back pain with operative and nonoperative treatment in adults with scoliosis. Neurosurgery 2009; 6: 586-93.

Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, Glassman SD, Berven SH, Schwab FJ, Hamill CL, Horton WC, Ondra SL, Sansur CA, Bridwell KH; Spinal Deformity Study Group. Risk- benefit assessment of surgery for adult scoliosis: an analy- sis based on patient age. Spine 2011; 36: 817-824.

Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, Sansur CA, Berven SH, Fu KM, Broadstone PA, Choma TJ, Goytan MJ, Noordeen HH, Knapp DR Jr, Hart RA, Donaldson WF 3rd, Polly DW Jr, Perra JH, Boachie-Adjei O; Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality Committee. Rates of in- fection after spine surgery based on 108,419 procedures: a report from the Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality Committee. Spine 2011; 36: 556-563.

Thomasen E. Vertebral osteotomy for correction of kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1985; 194: 142-152.

Vaccaro AR, Ball ST. Indications for instrumenta- tion in degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. Orthopedics

Vestergaard P, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L. Fracture risk associated with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammato- ry drugs, acetylsalicylic acid, and acetaminophen and the effects of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Calcif Tissue Int 2006; 79: 84-94.

Vestergaard P, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L. Fracture risk associated with the use of morphine and opiates. J Intern Med 2006; 260: 76-87.

Youssef JA, Hamlin LF, Rosemont. Adult Spinal Deformity, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Press, 2009; pp: 721-6.

Youssef JA, Orndorff DO, Patty CA, Scott MA, Price HL, Hamlin LF, Williams TL, Uribe JS, Deviren V.Current status of adult spinal deformity Global Spine J 2013; 3(1): 51-62.

Address: Site Mah. Cevahir Cad. Soyak Selale Evleri D-3 Blok Daire:4 Umraniye, Istanbul, Turkey

e-mail: [email protected]

Phone: +90.532.2816850

Arrival date: 23th June, 2015.

Acceptance date: 14th September, 2015.

Kaynak Göster