Timing of pedagogical intervention: Oral error treatment in EFL vs. CLIL contexts in primary education in Spain

This study stresses the major circumstances in terms of timing of pedagogical intervention in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) contexts within the same school setting in Madrid (Spain). The rationale of the research lies in the EFL and CLIL Primary Education teachers' preferences for online and offline correction (Pawlak, 2014). In order to gather significant data, classroom observation took place to list teachers' timing of error correction in oral communication –i.e., whether EFL and CLIL teachers perform immediate, delayed, or postponed correction. As for content and language integration, recent literature (Coyle, 2010; Wewer, 2017) stands out that CLIL practice should reflect upon alternative teaching methods different to EFL instruction (i.e. focus on language forms). Contrary to the expectations, the results highlight that there are no major differences of the timing of pedagogical intervention between EFL and CLIL teachers: Mostly all oral errors committed during EFL and CLIL courses were immediately intervened. In light of the results, some recommendations are proposed concerning the focus on language functions; i.e., being able to develop communicative competence and collaborative work along with language teachers.

Pedagojik müdahalenin zamanlaması: İspanya'da ilköğretimde EFL'e karşı CLL bağlamında sözlü hata iyileştirmesi

Bu çalışma, Yabancı Dil Olarak İngilizce (English as a Foreign Language: EFL) ve Dil ve İçeriğin Bütünleşik Olduğu Öğrenim (Content Language Integrated Learning: CLIL) kapsamında, pedagojik müdahalenin zamanlaması alanında Madrid'de (İspanya) aynı okul ortamında elde edilen ana sonuçları ortaya koymaktadır. Bu araştırmanın temelini EFL ve CLIL İlköğretim öğretmenlerinin çevrimiçi ve çevrimdışı düzeltme tercihleri oluşturmaktadır (Pawlak, 2014). Kayda değer veriler toplamak amacıyla, öğretmenlerin sözlü iletişimde hata düzeltme zamanlamalarını incelemek, yani EFL ve CLIL öğretmenlerinin düzeltmelerini anında, gecikmeli veya ertelenmiş olarak yapıp yapmadıklarını listelemek için sınıf gözlemi yapılmıştır. İçerik ve dil entegrasyonu ile ilgili olarak, güncel yayınlar (Coyle, 2010; Wewer, 2017), CLIL uygulamalarının EFL eğitiminden farklı alternatif öğretim yöntemlerini yansıtması (yani dil formlarına odaklanması) gerektiğini vurgulamaktadır. Beklenenin aksine, sonuçlar EFL ve CLIL öğretmenleri arasında pedagojik müdahale zamanlamasında önemli bir fark olmadığının altını çizmektedir: EFL ve CLIL dersleri esnasında yapılan sözlü hataların neredeyse tamamına anında müdahale edilmiştir. Sonuçlar ışığında, lisan fonksiyonlarına odaklanmayla ilgili bazı önerilerde bulunulmuş, diğer bir deyişle dil öğretmenleriyle birlikte iletişimsel yeterlilik ve işbirlikçi çalışmalar geliştirebilme olanakları üzerinde durulmuştur.

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Kaynak Göster