Cognitive processing of second language idiom comprehension: A comparative study

This study examines the cognitive processes underlying the comprehension of L2 idiomatic expressions by using two different visual instructional techniques – pictorial representation of literal meanings versus pictorial representation of figurative meanings of each idiomatic expression – considering two settings (EFL vs. ESL), two different types of idioms (opaque vs. transparent) and two different proficiency levels (intermediate vs. advanced). The treatment included common pedagogical practices that use Dual Coding Theory as two different visual techniques with verbal support to teach different types of idioms. 67 ESL and 63 EFL learners attended the study. Idiom Comprehension Test was used before and after the treatment. Results of repeated-measure ANOVA based on pre- and post-test comparisons revealed that the comprehension of L2 idioms differed with respect to the learning setting, instructional technique, and idiom type. Nevertheless, proficiency level did not seem to have any effect on comprehension outcomes of any group. The results showed that in the ESL setting, the figurative technique was more successful than literal technique; while in EFL setting the literal technique resulted in better scores compared to figurative technique. ESL learners were better at learning idioms with opaque meanings than learners in EFL settings whereas EFL students were better at learning idioms with transparent meanings. The results of this study support the view of the Dual Idiom Representation Model stating that ESL learners activate their existing idiom entry and they comprehend figuratively whereas EFL learners must decompose idioms.

İkinci dildeki deyimsel ifadelerin kavranmasının bilişsel işlemlenmesi: Karşılaştırmalı bir çalışma

Çalışma, ikinci dilde deyim kavrama sürecindeki bilişsel süreçleri araştırmaktadır. Çalışmada iki farklı görsel teknik- her bir deyimin sözlüksel anlamının resimlenerek gösterilmesi veya her bir deyimin mecazi anlamının resimlenerek gösterilmesi- kullanılmıştır. Bu farklı teknikler iki farklı ortamda-İngilizcenin ikinci dil olarak veya İngilizcenin yabancı dil olarak öğretildiği ortamlarda- ve iki farklı deyim türü (örtük ve açık anlamlı) kullanılarak, iki farklı dil yetkinlik düzeyinde (orta düzey ve gelişmiş düzey) uygulanmıştır. Çalışmanın uygulama kısmında iki farklı görsel teknik, İkili Kodlama Teorisine dayanarak hem görsel hem de sözel uyaranlar kullanılarak uygulanmıştır. İngilizceyi ikinci dil olarak öğrenen 67 bireyle, İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen 63 birey çalışmaya katılmıştır. Deyim Kavrama Testi hem uygulama öncesi hem de uygulama sonrası kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada kullanılan tekrarlayan örneklerde varyans analizi sonuçları ikinci dildeki deyim kavrama sürecinin öğrenme ortamına, öğrenme yöntemine ve deyim türüne göre değişiklik gösterdiğidir. Bunun aksine öğrencilerin dil yeterlilik seviyelerinin deyimleri kavramada herhangi bir etki teşkil etmediği saptanmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuçları İngilizceyi ikinci dil olarak öğrenen bireylerin deyimlerin mecazi anlamlarının resmedilerek öğretildiği teknikte daha başarılı olduklarını gösterirken İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen bireylerin deyimlerin sözlüksel anlamlarının resmedilerek öğretildiği teknikte daha başarılı olduğunu göstermiştir. İngilizceyi ikinci dil olarak öğrenen bireyler örtük deyimleri öğrenmede daha başarılı iken İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen bireyler açık anlamlı deyimleri öğrenmede daha başarılı bulunmuştur. Çalışmanın sonuçları İkili Deyim Temsil Modelini desteklerken İngilizceyi ikinci dil olarak öğrenen bireylerin deyim öğrenme sürecinde var olan deyim depolarını aktive ettiklerini ve deyimleri mecazi anlamlarıyla kavradıklarını gösterirken diğer bir taraftan İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen bireylerin de deyimleri ayrıştırarak, her bir parçayı ayrı ayrı anlamlandırarak öğrendiklerini ortaya çıkarmıştır.

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